Proto English Vowels

From FireSpeakerWiki

A chart of vowel correspondences in many English dialects. Uses an extended version of Well's lexical sets as necessary to make a keyword for every line. Includes significant allophones, and shows the sounds used in casual connected speech rather than carefully-annunciated speech. The IPA used, tho broad, is not phonemic and is designed to show differences, rather than similarities, between the dialects. Although diacritics are often used, the non-use of diacritics does not imply that a particular vowel is used in its cardinal sense.

Abbreviations

Table of abbreviations
GAmE General American (pre-WWII TV/radio)
RP Received Pronunciation
AusE (General) Australian English
VAusE (General) Victorian Australian English
NZE (General) General New Zealand English
JNWE Jonathan North Washington's (American) English
ABrE Aaron Braver's (American) English

The Chart

Vowel correspondence chart
Keyword ME GAmE JNWE ABrE RP AusE VAusE NZE Fran
Short
KIT ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ i i ə ɪ
DRESS ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ e e ɛ
LOT ɔ ɑ ɑ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ
CLOTH ɔ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ
STRUT ʊ ʌ̈ ʌ̈ ʌ̈ ɐ ä ä ä ʌ
FOOT ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ u u u ʊ
Short a
TRAP a æ æ æ a æ æ ɛ a
SANG a æɪ̯ e(ɪ̯/ː) a
SAG a æɪ̯ æ(ː) a
BAD a æ æ æ a(ː) æː æː ɛ a
TAN/PAM a Æ Æ a
DANCE a æ Æ Æ ɑː æː æː äː a
CAN'T a æ Æ Æ ɑː äː äː äː ɑ
BATH a æ æ æ ɑː äː äː äː a
PALM al ɑ ɑ ɒ ɑː äː äː äː ɑ
Short pre-r
START ar ɑɹ ɒɹ̯ ɑɹ̯ ɑː äː äː äː ɑː
NORTH ɔr ɔɹ ɔɹ̯ ɔɹ̯ ɔː ɔː
NURSE ʊr ɝ ɹ̩ ɹ̩ ɜː øː øː øː ɜː
FIR ɪr ɝ ɹ̩ ɹ̩ ɜː øː øː øː ɜː
HER ɛr ɝ ɹ̩ ɹ̩ ɜː øː øː øː ɜː
HURRY ʊ ɝ ɹ̩ ɹ̩ ɐ ä ä ä ɝ
MERRY ɛ ɛ Æɹ̯ Æɹ̯ e e ɛ
MARRY a æ Æɹ̯ Æɹ̯ a æ æ ɛ a
Short pre-l
BELL ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ e æ ɛ ɛ
DOLL ɔ ɑ ɑ ɒ ɒ ɔu ɔu ? ɔ
CULT ʊ ʌ̈ ʌ̈ ʌ̈ ɐ ɔ ɔ ? ʌʊ
BALD a ɒ ɒ ɒ ɔː ɔʊ ɔʊ ? ɔʊ
Long
FLEECE eː, ɛː i i i ɪi ɪi ɪi i
FACE aː, ɛː, ɛi, ai eɪ̯ eɪ̯ æi æi æɪ
THOUGHT ɔu ɒ ɒ ɒ(?) ɔː ɔː
GOAT ɔː o ɤʊ̯ ɤ̟ʊ̯ əʊ ɐʉ ɐʉ ɐʉ ʌʊ
GOOSE ʉ̟ ʉ̟ː ʉ̟ː ʉ̟ː u
PRIDE ɑɪ̯ ɑɪ̯ ɑe ɑe ɑe ɑɪ
CHOICE ɔi ɒɪ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ oi oi ɔɪ
MOUTH aʊ̯ aʉ̯ æə æə æə
Long pre-unvoiced
PRICE ʌɪ̯ ʌɪ̯ ɑe ɑe ɑe ʌɪ
Long pre-r
NEAR eːr, ɛːr ɪɹ iɹ̯ iɹ̯ ɪə iː ~ iə iː ~ iə ɪː
SQUARE aːr, ɛːr, ɛir, air æɹ Æɹ̯ Æɹ̯ ɛə iə ~ ɪə ɛː
FORCE ɔːr ɔɹ̯ ɔɹ̯ ɔː ɔː
CURE iur, oːr ʲɹ̩/ʲɨɹ̯ ʲɹ̩ ʊə ʉ̟ːə ʉ̟ːə ? jʊə
POOR oːr, iur ɔɹ̯ u(ə)ɹ̯ ʊə ɔː
Long pre-l
GOAL ɔː o ɤ̹ː ɤ̹ʊ̯ əʊ ɔʊ ɔʊ ɔʊ əʊ
FOOL u u(ə) u(ə) ʉ̟ː ~ uː
FUEL iuə ʲu(ə) ʲu(ə) ʊə ʉ̟ː ~ uː ? juə
PALE/PAIL aː, ɛː, ɛi, ai e(?) Æ Æ
Unstressed
HAPPY i i i ɪ i i i i
ABBOT ə ɨ ə ə ə ə ʌ
RABBIT ɪ ɨ ɪ ə ə ə ɪ
BOTTOM/SYSTEM ə ə ə ə/ə
TURNIP/VICTIM ɪ ə ɪ(?)/ə ɪ/ɪ

Disclaimer

(Disclaimer: This should be read as showing how diversity in pronunciation is not always an obstacle in comprehension. Not to be used as a source for anything. Some transcriptions based on the authors' own observations.)