Turkic Sonority Constraints

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The orthography used to represent Turkic languages on this page is a phonemic system based on Turkish orthography.
This is done to avoid focusing on the phonetic differences between different languages used.
The IPA is used when describing the phonetics of Turkic languages.

Kazakh

General Effects

Further effects of nasals

What happens to /+m/ after other morphemes
morpheme /V+/ /r+/ /l+/ /j+/ /w+/ /n+/ /m+/ /ŋ+/ C [+voice] C [-voice]
-mA(neg) m m m m m b b b b p
-mA(Q) m m m m m b b b b p
-mA(nom) b
-mAK m m m m m b b b b p
-mIz m m m m m? b b b b p
-mIn m m m m m? m m m b p
-men m m m m m m m m b p

Kyrgyz

Assimilation
morpheme /V+/ /r+/ /j+/ /l+/ /n+/ /m+/ /ŋ+/ C [+voice] C [-voice]
-NI(acc) n d d d d t
-LAr(pl) l l l d d t
  • The morpheme *-MI has become -bI in Kyrgyz

Words that changed due to sonority

  • Kk: дуния, Kg: дүйнө ("world")
  • Kk: өйрек, Uy: өрдәк ("duck")
  • Kk: өкпе, Kg: өпкө, Tt: үпкә, Uz: ўпка ("lung")
  • Kk: жаңбыр, Kg: жамгыр, Tt: ямгыр, Uz: ёмғир, Tk: yağmur ("rain")
  • Kk: маған, Kg: мага, Uz: менга, Tk: bana, Orkhon: manga ("to me")
  • Kk: саған, Kg: сага, Uz: сенга, Tk: sana, Orkhon: sanga ("to you")
  • Kk: оған, Kg: ага/аңа, Uz: онга, *onga ("to him/her/it")
  • Kk: кұйрық, Ru: курдюк ("tail")
  • Kk: айналайын, Kg: айланайын (term of endearment)
  • Kk: секпіл, Tt: сипкел ("freckle")
  • Kk: қақпақ, Kg: капкак, Tt: капкач, Uz: қопқоқ, Uy: qapqaq, Tk/Az/Tkm: ~kapak ("lid")

Bibliography

  • Ахматов Т. К., Давлетов С. А., Жапаров Ш. Ж., Захарова О. В. 1975. Киргизский Язык. Фрунзе: Мектеп.