Turkic phonemic transcription

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I use a version of the Turkish alphabet (more similar to the Latin alphabet used for Tatar) to represent Turkic languages phonemically. This tries to summarise the system (but is not complete yet).

orthography Kazakh Kyrgyz Tatar Turkish Uzbek
a а /a/ а /ɑ/ а /ɒ/ а /ɑ/ a /a/
ä ә /æ/ — /a~æ/ ә /æ/ (e /æ/) a /æ/
aa, ā аа /ɑː/ ağ(a) /ɑː/
â, å — /ɔ/ а /ɒ/ o /ɒ~ɔ/
b б /b/ б /b~w/ б /b/ b /b/ b /b/
c (ц /ts/) җ /ʤ/ʓ/ c /ʤ/ ts /ts/
ç ч /ʧ/ ч /ʧ~ʃ/ ç /ʧ/ ch /ʧ/
e е /i̯ɘ/ e, э /e/ e /ɘ/ e /ɛ/ e /e/
ee, ē ээ /eː/
g г /g/ г /g/ г /g/ g /g/ g /g/
ğ ғ /ʀ/ г /ʀ/ г /ʀ/ ğ /y/ː/(ʀ/) g' /ʀ/
h һ /h/ һ /h/ h /h/ h /h/
i і /ɘ/ и /i/ и /i/ i /ɪ/ i /ɨ/
ı ы /ə/ ы /ɯ/ ы /ə/ ı /ɯ/
j ж /ʒ/ ж /ʤ/ ж /ʐ/ j /ʒ/ j /ʤ/
k к /k/ к /k/ к /k/ k /k/ k /k/
ŋ ң /ŋ/ ң /ŋ/ ң /ŋ/ — /ŋ/ (ng /ŋ(g)/)
o о /u̯ʊ/ о /o/ о /o/(?) o /o/ o' /o/
ö ө /y̯ʉ/ ө /œ/ ө /œ/(?) ö /œ/ (o' /œ/)
q қ /q/ к /q/ к /q/ (k /q/) q /q/
ş ш /ʃ/ ш /ʃ/ ш /ʃ/ ş /ʃ/ sh /ʃ/
u ұ /ʊ/ у /u/ у /ʊ/ u /u/ u /u/
ü ү /ʉ/ ү /y/ ү /ʉ/ ü /y/ (u /ʉ/)
v (в /v/) в (/v/) | v /v/ v /v/
w у /w/ (уб /w/) в /w/ (v /v/)
x х /χ/ х /χ/ х /χ/ (h /x/) x /χ/
y й /j/ й /j/ й /j/ y /j/ y /j/


  • There are digraphs which aren't in the table:
    • Kazakh ‹у› represents w, ıw, iw, uw, and üw.
    • Various languages have ‹я›, ‹е›, ‹ё›, and ‹ю› which have y onglide and then a vowel. E.g. Tatar ‹я› represents ya and yä.
  • various languages' dialectal forms have been included (in parentheses), though orthography usually assumed based on standard dialect.
  • Turkish is transcribed as-is usually, which is problematic, because spelling isn't always in-line with this system, at least not in terms of correspondence to other languages (e.g. ‹c›).
  • Parentheses can mean a non-native phoneme, like with "(в /v/)", or a non-native phoneme represented by a grapheme used also for a native phoneme, like with "в (/v/)". The can also mean a phoneme not normally recognised as being represented by a single orthographic convention, like "(уб /w/)", or a phoneme found only in certain dialects, and hence not distinguished orthographically in those dialects, like with "(k /q/)".