Lexical differences between Kazakh and Kyrgyz

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Revision as of 02:54, 12 November 2018 by Firespeaker (talk | contribs) (False friends B)

The orthography used to represent Turkic languages on this page is a phonemic system based on Turkish orthography.
This is done to avoid focusing on the phonetic differences between different languages used.
The IPA is used when describing the phonetics of Turkic languages.

This is here mainly to quantify lexical differences between Kazakh and Kyrgyz.

For further information on sound correspondence issues, see Turkic sound changes and Turkic words that shouldn't be as they are.

False friends A

(Words that look/sound similar, but meaning different - probably unrelated)

Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
tamaşa a joke tamaşa perfect
zaŋ shit zaŋ law
saz swamp saz melody
ıya huh? iyä yes
say- to plug in, stab, inject, stick in, fuck sayıs- to compete
ıyıq holy ıyıq shoulder
ayna powder ayna mirror

False friends B

(Words that are mostly cognates but with at least slightly different meanings)

Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
arman a regret, a sorrow arman dream / a wish for something to come
eje older sister / female relative äje grandmother
apa mother apa older female [relative]
bayke (<*bay ake), ağa (dial.) older brother äke; ağa father; older brother
juma friday, week juma friday (, dial. week)
jönököy simple jönekey ?
jön simply jön normal?, correct?
jay slow jay slow, simple, quiet
tamga letter (of alphabet) taŋba ~sign, tamga
jığaç wood ağaş tree, wood
baq tree, garden baq garden
tuura correct, straight tuwra straight
durus ? durıs correct
aruu ~pure (adj.) arıw beautiful girl (n.)
qalta ~cloth/sack for carrying something qalta pocket
uq- listen uq- ~understand
şaş- hurry sas- be panicked (about)
oromo a wrapped steamed ~dumpling oralma headscarf
orol- to be wrapped oral- return (v.i.), come back, ..?
qarma- hold qarma- catch
ata father ata grandfather
qabırğa rib(s) qabırğa wall, rib(s)
qalempir pepper qalampır clove(s)
qaalağan any qalağan [something] that's wanted
kez kelgen that's turn/time has come (?) kez kelgen any
tuu- to bear child (animal) tuw- to bear child (general/human)
alp big, strong; giant (adj.), huge alıp hero, giant (n.); big, strong
döö cyclops, monster däw huge (slang)
min- to ride an animal min- to ride an animal; climb up, to get on (a bus)
qayra back (p.i.), again; (returning herd animals to corral?) qayıra returning herd animals to corral
beldik [woman's] backband, girth?, girdle? beldik backband, girth, girdle, belt
köktöm (archaic) early spring köktem spring, early spring
jaz spring jaz summer
el nation, people el nation, people, state, country
ölkö country, state ölke area of land (specific? general?)
aqırın quietly, slowly, (deliberately?) aqırın quietly, slowly, carefully, (deliberately?)
bat- to fit (in somewhere), to set (heavenly body), ... bat- to set (heavenly body), to drown, to get bogged down (in)
qomuz plucked string instrument qobız (Kyrgyz sıbızğı) - stringed instrument played with bow
qunduz otter qundız beaver
kemçet beaver / Kamchatkan [sea] otter? qamşat otter
sarımay butter-like thing sarımay butter
sarımsaq wild onion? sarımsaq garlic
suraq investigation suraq question
jetigen the Big Dipper jetigen a zither-like instrument
üşü- be cold üsi- freeze
daroo immediately derew quickly
monçoq bead, necklace monşaq string of beads
qaljıŋ(da-) tease (?) qaljıŋ(da-) joke
irenji- be disgusted renji- be offended
çıqanaq elbow şığanaq inlet/bay (?)
eskertkiç reminder eskertkiş memorial/statue
estelik memorial/statue estelik reminder
çoçoq penis şoşaq pointy-shaped
kön- get used to kön- agree with (?)

Words where cognate doesn't exist

(bold = word doesn't exist as cognate; every line should have at least one bolded word)

Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
üy bülö family otbası family
ooba yes iyä yes
ıya? huh?
tataal complicated/complex keşendi complicated/complex
qotor- translate, convert awdar- translate, convert
emerek furniture jıyhaz furniture
je (emese) or (if so) nemese or
daroo immediately birden "
qoqus(tan) suddenly kenetten unexpectedly
ayant [city] square alaŋ "
(suuğa) tüş- şomalda- to bathe
qooz pleasant to look at (not person) ?
mıyzam law zaŋ "
unaa means of transportation kölik "
ele (many uses)
da (mood marker)
elek (tense marker - "not yet")
jomoq fairy tale ertek "
obon melody saz "
ır song än "
ırda- sing än ayt- "
manja finger sawsaq "
uy cow sıyır "
çaqa (dial. çelek) bucket şelek bucket
apta (dial.) week apta week
çöntök pocket qalta pocket
uq- listen, hear esit- hear
uq- listen, hear tıŋda- listen
başqaruuçu boss bastıq boss
izilde- research zerte- research
kiyinki next, following kelesi next, following
jooluq scarf oralma headscarf
toqoy forest orman forest
qarma- hold, grab usta-, tut- hold, grab
dubal wall qabırğa wall
çağılğan lightning nayzağay lightning
çoŋ big ülken big
çoğuu together birge together
törö- to bear child (human) tuw- to bear child
jaşılça/köksaq vegetable(s)/greens kökinis vegetable(s)/greens
belek gift sıylıq gift
şüüdürüm dew şıq dew
tilekke qarşı unfortunately ökinişke oray unfortunately
ün alğı radio
sın alğı television teledıydar television
qaarman (sometimes keyipker) hero, character keyipker character
munay [earth] oil
köp often jiyi, ılğıy often
(tap-)taqır completely mülde, tipten completely
mayram (maarake) celebration, holiday mereke, mayram celebration, holiday
qılım century ğasır century
boz üy (kiyiz üy) yurt kiyiz üy yurt
tepkiç, basqıç stairs, ladder baspaldaq, şatı stairs, ladder
jürgürtmö schedule keste schedule
tootpo-, etibar qılba-, köŋül salba- ignore / not pay attention to eleme- ignore (not pay attention to)
täwir decent
urmat, sıy, ızaat, qoşamat respect qurmet, sıy, qoşemet, izet respect
qayra, qayta back (p.i.), again qayta back (p.i.), again
çeyin, deyre before, until şeyin, deyin
quur belt beldik, belbew, taspa? belt
topçu, tüymö button (on clothing) tüyme
kir, ıplas dirty, morally dirty kir, las dirty
jay summer jaz summer
tübölük(kö) forever, eternal(ly), everlasting(ly) mäŋgi forever, eternal(ly), everlasting(ly)
taarın- to get offended ökpele- to get offended
zarıl, qajet? necessary/necessarily qajet necessary/necessarily
küzgü mirror ayna mirror
qoşuna neighbour körşi neighbour
böbök, nariste, böpö, (lit. aldey) baby säbiy, närestey, böpe, äldiy?, böbek? baby
ulaan, ula(n(t))- continuing (adj.); continue (v.i.), keep doing, continue (?) uzar(t)- to continue (v.i., v.t.)
(aylana)-(çöyrö) environs (aynala)-(qorşaw) environs
jooker, (sarboz, sarbaz (archaic)) soldier sarbaz soldier
atayın on purpose qasaqana on purpose
atayı(n) emes, qoqustan by accident abaysızdan by accident
ırğıt- throw, chuck laqtır- throw, chuck
paymandas, er jürök, taymanbas brave batıl, betti, jalaŋ tös brave
muştum fist judırıq fist
borbor center oşaq center
soy-, moozda- slaughter [livestock] (and cutting other things open, like watermelons) bawızda- slaughter [livestock]
tosqool, bögöt hindrance, obstacle böget hindrance, obstacle
tekst text mätin text
eşikte outside dalada outside
çurqa-, jügür- run jügir- run
ACC/ABL ooz tiy-, daam sız- taste (v.t.) GEN däm◌+ACC tat- taste (v.t.)
tamaşa, azil joke, (liter.) äzil joke
şakek ring (jewelry) jüzik, saqıyna ring
qayırçılıq, tilemçilik alms qayırşılıq alms
beer sıra beer
qoqo adam's apple jutqınşaq adam's apple
bat- fit (be enough space to fit) sıy- "
çükö ankle bone shooting asıq "
daalı top of back / back of shoulders ?
? jawırın shoulder blades
qumursqanın uyası/uyuğu/iyin ant hill qumursqanıŋ ini
ıyıq holy kiyeli, äwliye holy
dülöy, kereŋ deaf saŋıraw, kereŋ? deaf
badıraŋ cucumber qıyar (dial. bädriŋ) cucumber
ilgeri-ilgeri zamanda long long ago erte-ertede long long ago
çıqanaq elbow şıntaq (cognate??) elbow
jöndömö noun case septik noun case
möŋgü glacier muzart glacier
-ABL taja- be fed up with -ABL erğaştı bol- be fed up with
jan◌+LOC next to qas◌+LOC, jan◌+LOC next to
kirgiz- enter (information) engiz-, kirgiz- enter (information)
bülö gum (in mouth) tistiŋ eti gum (in mouth)
çalqan nettle qalaqay nettle
sıbızğı bowed string instrument qobız bowed string instrument
kiş, bulğun (lit.) sable bulğın sable
şeyşep sheet aqjayma sheet?
juurqan blanket körpe blanket?
töşök sleeping mat körpeşe sleeping mat
qaalğa door to a yurt ?
tema topic taqırıp topic
qalp, jalğan lie (falsehood) ötirik, jalğan lie (falsehood)
qalpıçı liar ötirkşi liar
şaş- be in a hurry asığ- be in a hurry
toqoy forest urman forest
çırmooq vine ?
jön ele simply, just because jay ğana "
topoz yak qodas "
jörgömüş spider örmekşi" spider
toburçaq pinecone/etc. bürşik pinecone/etc.
mamalaq bear cub qonjıq bear cub
mıymıy kitten marğaw, mäwlen kitten
çekit dot/period nükte dot/period
oroy rude döreki rude
üşü- be cold jawra-/toŋ- be cold
toŋ- freeze üsi- freeze
daroo immediately/suddenly birdesten suddenly
mala çay watery tea asıq şay watery tea
jıt smell/scent iyis smell/scent
tuura immitate elekte- immitate
ibelik rolling pin dembel?, oqtaw? rolling pin
proyekt project joba project
plan, maqsat plan jospar plan
badal bush buta bush
şuru bead, necklace monşaq bead
monçoq, şuru necklace alqa necklace
daana piece tüyir piece
oturğuç chair orındıq chair
vʲílka fork şanışqı fork
şım pants şalbar pants
qorot- waste ?
oŋdo- fix jönde- fix
çoy- stretch (vt.) soz- stretch
türt- push türt-, iyter- push
telefon çal- call (by phone) zvonda- call (by phone)
kön- get used to qatıstır- get used to (?)
basım (phonological) stress/accent ekpin (phonological) stress/accent

Words where cognate's form is different

(or where only part of cognate is the same; cognate pieces underlined)

Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
ayıl village awıl village
içke narrow jiŋişke narrow
/jumuş qıl- to work jumıs iste- to work
tiyeşelüü concerning tiyisti concerning
qatıstı related to
(bir) tuulğan relative tuwıs relative
erteŋ menen morning taŋ-erteŋ morning
etiş verb etistik verb
zat atooç noun zat esim noun
kiçinekey little kişkentay little
teskeriçe backwards, other way around kerisinşe backwards, other way around
tıyın çıçqan squirrel tiyin squirrel
naqta real nağız real
suroo question suraq question
qız quumay girl chasing qız quwıw girl chasing
amerikalıq American amerikandıq American
abayla! be careful! abay bol! be careful!
jarnama, jarnaq advertisement jarnaq advertisement
köçmön nomad, nomadic köşpendi nomad, nomadic
balalıq childhood balawsa childhood
oynooq playful oyna playful
şırdaq felt rug sırmaq felt rug
jetigen the big dipper jetiqaraqşı the big dipper
qandaydır bir some kind of älde qanday some kind of
suranıç demand suranıs demand
üçburçtuq triangle üşburış triangle
köbünçö mostly köbinese mostly

Cognates where default variant is different

Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
aqısız, tegin free (of cost) tegin, aqısız "
jardam, kömök help, aid, assistance kömek, jardam "
jönöt-, jiber- send jiber-, jönet-, jolda- "
jaqında near jaqında, juwıqta "
jaq- to be pleasing to jaq-, una- "
joluq-, kezdeş- to meet (with) kezdes- "
daraq, baq tree ağaş, daraq "
şaar city qala, şahar (dial.) "
jılmay- smile kül-, jımıy- "
muzdaq cold (beverage) muzdaq, muzday (dial.), salqın "
bat, tez, ıldam, baçım, qatuu "fast" tez, jıldam "
taqır completely, bald taqır bald
(tap-)taqır, müldö, tipti completely, totally mülde, tipti, tipten "
töş, kökürök chest (anat.) tös, kewde, omıraw, kökirek "
bürsügünü, ((n)arı künü?) day after tomorrow arı küni, bürsigüni "
ajatqana, daaratqana, töölöt bathroom/toilet däretxana, äjetxana, tüwälet "
dayar, dayın (dial.) ready dayın, dayar, saylawlı "
keleçek, (boloçoq) future bolaşaq, keleşek "
şamal, jel wind, breeze jel, samal "
jolu, iret times ret "
jalqoo, erin- lazy, be lazy jalqaw, erin- "

Cognates with different vowel harmony

front/back differences
Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
maalımat information mälimet, mağlumat official information, information
aalam ~world ğalam, älem globe, world
aba air awa, äwe air
baarı all bäri all
daarat excrement däret excrement
salam a greeting sälem a greeting
jana and jäne and
ayal woman, wife äyel woman, wife
qana ~"let me see" käne ~"let me see"
natıyja result nätiyje result
adabiyat literature ädebiyet literature
adabiy literary ädebiy literary
parda curtain perde curtain
daroo immediately derew quickly
dart illness dert illness
obon melody/tune äwen melody/tune
kemçet beaver qamşat otter
eŋse- desire (v.t.) aŋsa- desire (v.t.)
mee brain mıy brain
miŋ 1000 mıŋ 1000
idiş dish ıdıs plate
tıyın çıçqan squirrel tiyin squirrel
ısım name esim name
qadır reputation kädir reputation
araŋ barely äreŋ barely
alsız weak älsiz weak
ösiyet osuyat
disharmonic
Kyrgyz Kazakh
word gloss word gloss
maani meaning mağına, män meaning
ajatqana toilet/bathroom äjetxana; qajet toilet/bathroom; necessary
raqmat thanks raqmet thanks
qızmat service qızmet service
urmat respect qurmet respect
qata mistake qate mistake
mayram celebration meyram celebration
qalempir pepper qalampır clove(s)
misal example mısal example
kitep book kitap book
araket attempt, try (~n.) äreket attempt, try (~n.)
azır now qazir, äzir now
rounding
Kyrgyz Kazakh
jıldız star juldız star
jıpar perfume jupar perfume
mın- this (oblique forms) mun- this (oblique forms)
büt- to finish (v.i.) bit- to finish (v.i.)
münöz person's character minez person's character
ötük boot(s) etik boot(s)
sülöösün lynx silewsin lynx
kökül bangs kekil bangs
şökülö unmarried woman's tall hat säwkele unmarried woman's tall hat
..everything..
Kyrgyz Kazakh
tobokel risk (n.) täwekel risk (n.)
şoola ray of light säwle, şağula ray of light

Consonantal differences

mysterious consonantal differences
Kyrgyz Kazakh
tanda- choose taŋda- choose
çalıq- be tired of jalıq- be tired of
bermet pearl meriwert pearl
tegirmen mill diyirmen mill

Kazakh words some people don't know

Maybe they're from a different dialect, or literary, but they're in the dictionary and have cognates in Kyrgyz.

  • mıq - nail (n.)
  • öp- - kiss (v.t.)
  • jıljıtpa amal - cunning plan
  • jasa- - live (v.i.)
  • kör - blind (adj)
  • suwır - marmot

Uncategorised

  • Kazakh jüye - system
  • basqı, başqı
  • Kazakh mülde
  • Kyrgyz ayabay
  • Kazakh saw bol-
  • Kazakh abay bol-, Kyrgyz etiyet bol-
  • Kyrgyz qamsız qıl-
  • Kyrgyz jaşoo
  • qarın/qursaq
  • Kyrgyz adis 'specialty, specialist', Kazakh mamandıq 'specialty', maman 'specialist', ädis ?'specialty'
  • Kazakh mätin
  • Kazakh amal joq, Kyrgyz ayla joq
  • mıq/jügir??/şege
  • Kyrgyz mint-/mınti-, anti- (antkeni), oşent-, qanti-, tigint-; Kazakh öyt- (öytkeni), söyt-, qayti-
  • Kyrgyz tigi
  • Kazakh/Kyrgyz jolı/jolu, ret/iret
  • Kazakh lıpıl
  • Kyrgyz qıtığıla- / Kazakh qıtıqta-
  • Kyrgyz küü / Kazakh küy
  • Kyrgyz ölöŋ / Kazakh öleŋ
  • Kyrgyz taandıq / Kazakh tän
  • Kazakh jarlıq
  • qarapayım/kademki(/kädemgi)
  • Kazakh jappay?
  • juduruq/judırıq, muştum
  • jubaylar?
  • soqur/soqır
  • Kyrgyz atayı / Kazakh arnayı, ädeyi