Difference between revisions of "Non-productive morphemes in Turkic"

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(-KIr/-KIz)
(-(I)K)
 
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* '''sınıq''' ‘broken’
 
* '''sınıq''' ‘broken’
 
* ?'''qızıq''' ‘interesting’
 
* ?'''qızıq''' ‘interesting’
  +
  +
Some potential ones:
  +
* '''arıq''' (cf. az)
  +
* '''anıq''' (cf. ay)
   
 
== Nominalisers ==
 
== Nominalisers ==

Latest revision as of 10:52, 25 March 2019

-A (N→V)

  • boş - empty, free (space, time); boşo- - to empty, become free (v.i.)
  • at - name; ata- - to call/name (v.t.)
  • san - number; sana- - to count/enumerate (v.t.)
  • jaş - age (n.) / young; jaşa- - to live (v.i.)
  • - food; aşa- - to eat by stuffing food into mouth from hands (one's own or other's)
  • sın - criticism; sına- - to criticise, evaluate (v.t.)
  • qıŋğır - jingling, ringing; qıŋğıra- - to jingle, ring (v.i.)
  • qıyın - difficult; qıyna- - to be difficult (v.i.) ~ to torment? (v.t.)
  • til - tongue; tile- - to wish
  • orın - place/location; orna- - to be located
  • qan - blood; qana- - to bleed? (v.t.)
  • tüş - dream; tülö- - to have a dream
  • uçur - time, instance; uçra- - to meet / to greet

-sIz → -sIrA

  • alsız - weak; alsıra- - to weaken (v.i.)
  • Uzbek yog‘ - oil; yog‘sira- - to unoil(?)

-Ay (N→V)

  • az - little (in quantity); azay- - to lessen (v.i.)
  • çoŋ - big; çoŋoy- - to grow (v.i.)
  • köp - a lot; köböy- - to increase in quantity (v.i.)
  • keŋ - wide; keŋey- - to get wide (v.i.)
  • qıyşıq - crooked; qıyşay- - to get crooked (v.i.)
  • joon - thick (of cylindrical things); joonoy- - to thicken (??)
  • muŋ - grief; muŋay- - to be sad
  • qart - old (person); qartay- - to get old (v.i.)

r/z and l/ş alternations

  • köz - eye; kör- - see
    • Sakha/Dolgan kör- - see, köhün- - to be seen
    • Tuvan kör- see, köskü - visible
    • Khakas kör- see, kösküt- - show
  • semiz - fat (adj.); semir- - to get fat
  • jetkiz-/jetkir- - to ~lead somewhere / help reach
  • jatqız-/jatqır- - to make lie down
  • ötköz-/ötkör- - to carry out / execute
  • otqor-/otqoz - to graze (v.t.)
  • tüş/tülö- - dream (n/v.?.)
  • az - little (in quantity), araŋ - barely (Mo. arai)
  • uzaq - long; (y)ıraq - far
  • avuz - mouth; avurt - corner of mouth (?*ağz, *ağurt)
  • jultuz - star; jultura- - sparkle
  • -siz - -less; -sira- - lose
  • -Ar / -mAz

Causatives

The normal causative formation in Kyrgyz employes -t (after 2+-syllable vowel stems) / and -DIr (after consonant and 1-syllable stems). However, there are a bunch more causative morphemes.

-KAr and -KIz causatives

-KAr/-KAz

  • ötkör-/ötköz- - to carry out / execute (v.t.)
  • bütkör- - to finish (v.t.)
  • körgöz- - to show (v.t.)
  • unutqar- - forget
  • Maybe a different -KAr/-KAz ?
    • atqar- - to carry out / execute (v.t.)
    • başqar- - to direct (v.t.)
    • qutqar- - to save (v.t.)
    • ayıpqar- -
    • uyatqar- - to shame (v.t.)
    • kömkör- - to lay on front side (v.t.)
    • tütkör- - to make be enough (v.t.)
    • otqor-/otqoz- - to graze (v.t.)
    • (t)omqor / tomur- - to upturn something heavy

-KIr/-KIz

  • jetkir-/jetkiz- - to see/walk someone somewhere / help them get there (v.dt.)
  • jatqır-/jatqız- - to make lie down (v.t.)
  • batqız-/batqır-(?) - to make something fit [somewhere] (v.[d]t.)
  • mingiz- - to make someone mount/ride
  • tiygiz- - to make touch
  • turğuz- - to stand up (v.t.)
  • o(l)turğuz- - to make sit (v.t.)
  • kiygiz- - to dress (v.t.)
  • kirgiz- - to put in / enter (e.g., data) (v.t.)
  • jegiz-/jedir- - make eat (v.t.)
  • emgiz- - nurse (v.t.)

-(I)r/-(I)z causative

  • siŋ- - to get absorbed; siŋir- - to absorb
  • büt- - finish/end (v.i.); bütür- - finish (v.t.)
  • bış- - cook (v.i.); bışır- - cook (v.t.)
  • tüs- - fall (v.i.); tüşür- - make fall (v.t.)
  • ket- - leave (v.i.); ketir- - make leave (v.t.)
  • aş- - pass/exceed (+abl); aşır - make exceed (v.t.)
  • aq- - flow (v.i.); ağız- - make flow (v.t.)
  • köç- - move (v.i.); köçür- - move (v.t.)
  • öç- - turn off/go out/be extinguished (v.i.); öçür- turn off/put out/extinguish (v.t.)
  • qat- - get hard (v.i.); qatır- make hard (v.t.)
  • uq- - listen, hear (v.i./v.t.); uğuz- make hear (v.t.)
  • iç- - drink (v.t.); içir- make drink (v.t.)
  • tam- - drip (v.i.); tamız- make drip (v.t.)
  • ös- - grow (v.i.); ösür- make grow, raise (v.t.)

-Ar

  • çıq- - take/move out (v.i.); çığar- take/put/move out (v.t.)

-tIr causatives

These causatives don't have voicing assimilation for some reason

  • kel- - to come (v.i.); keltir- - to make come (v.t.)
  • qal- - to stay (v.i.); qaltır- - to leave (behind) (v.t.)
  • öl- - to die (v.i.); öltür- - to kill (v.t.)
  • tol- - to fill (v.i.); toltur- - to fill (v.t.)

∅ (X↔V?)

  • köp - a lot; köp- - to swell, get big (in volume, not mass), rise (of dough)
  • toŋ - frozen ground(?); toŋ- - to freeze (v.i.)
  • qızıq - interesting (adj.); qızıq- - to be interested by (v.i.?)
  • kör
  • qır
  • köç
  • sağ - intellect (n.); saq- - think, consider

-Ar (Adj→V)

  • suu - water / wet; suğar- - to water (v.t.)
  • jaş - age (n.) / young; jaşar- - to get/look younger
  • qısqa - short; qısqar- - to shorten / get short (v.i.)
  • kök - green~blue; kögör- - to turn green (v.i.)
  • aq - white; ağar- - to turn white (v.i.)
  • jaŋı - new; jaŋır- - to be restored/revitalised/renewed (v.i.)
  • eski - old; eskir- - to wear out (v.i.)
  • içke - thin (of long things); içker- - to get thin (v.i.)
  • juqa - thin (of flat things); juqar- - to get thin (v.i.)
  • özgö - different/foreign; özgör- - to change (v.i.)
  • jarıq - bright; jarqır- - flash (v.i.) ?

Other Alternations

  • ??? qız - girl / qızıl - red / qızı- - to blush / qızar- - to blush
  • jarıq - bright, jar- - explode
  • jalaŋ - naked, jalğız - lone, alone
  • balqaş - swamp, balır - swamp

Irregular forms

  • Kyrgz/Kazakh balabaldar
  • Sakha kııskıırkıttar

Complex Codas

  • Kyrgyz qarın ‘stomach’ → qard- (poss. root)
  • Kyrgyz murun ‘nose’ → murd- (poss. root)
  • Kyrgyz orun ‘place’ → ord- (poss. root)
  • Kyrgyz dial. moyun ‘neck’ → moyd- (poss. root)
  • OT oğıloğl-
  • Tatar siŋilsiŋl-

Complex Codas 2

  • Tatar dusdust-

-KArI

keri means something like "backside side" or "reverse" or something, though this seems to be from the directive case -GArU

  • teskeri - backwards ← ters - opposite
  • tışqarı - aside from, outside of ← tış - outside
  • ilgeri
  • sırtqarı

-KI (V→N)

  • açıtqı - yeast
  • şıpırğı - broom
  • uyutqu - coagulator (i.e., for yoghurt)
  •  ?çalğı - scythe
  • sınalğı - TV
  • ünalğı - radio
  •  ?ülgü - pattern
  • OTk. içkü - a drink

-GU (N→N?)

  • qār (**qıra?) snow ~ qırağu (hoar)frost

-(K)AK

V→A

  • jabışqaq - ‘sticky’
  • batqaq - ‘mud’?
  • çıçqaq - ‘shitter’
  • osurak - ‘farter’
  • siygek - ‘pisser’

-KA

V??→N ??

  • jumurtqa - ‘egg’
  • çegirtke - ‘grasshopper’
  • qabırğa - ‘rib, wall’
  • köleŋke/kölökö - ‘shade/shadow’
  • qumursqa - ‘ant’
  • kesirtke (Kazakh) - ‘lizard’

-dAK

  • şır - ""; şırdaq - felt rug
  • quur - "fry"; quurdaq - fried meat (& potatoes)

-sAK

  • supsaq cf. suu
  • boorsoq cf. boor

-AçAK

  • keleçek - "future"
  • Kazakh bolaşaq - "future"

-KIn

  • qaçqın - ‘runaway, fugitive’
  • taşqın - ‘flood’
  • turğun - ‘resident’
  • jutqınçaq - ‘adam's apple’

-(I)K

This -(I)K is V→A

  • açıq ‘open’
  • ısıq ‘hot’
  • sınıq ‘broken’
  •  ?qızıq ‘interesting’

Some potential ones:

  • arıq (cf. az)
  • anıq (cf. ay)

Nominalisers

These are mostly all V→N morphemes

-(I)N

  • kelin - ‘bride / daughter in law’
  •  ?aqırın - slowly, carefully
  •  ?salqın
  •  ?jaqın (vs. yağuq)
  •  ?ışqın
  •  ?qıyın
  •  ?dayın (vs. dayar)
  • iyin - ‘shoulder’
  • tüyün - ‘knot’
  •  ?tütün - ‘smoke’
  • uzun (vs. uzaq)
  •  ?ustun - ‘(tree )trunk’
  • jarqın (vs. jarıq) - ‘bright’
  • jaan (cf. jaa-) - ‘rain’
  • muun (cf. *boğ-) - ‘joint’

-(I)K

  • jırtıq - ‘tear (rip)’
  • teşik - ‘hole’
  • ayrıq - ‘scrap, shred’
  • ışqırıq - ‘whistle’
  • qaqırıq - ‘loogie’
  • sızıq - ‘line, dash’
  • sınıq - ‘broken piece’
  • qıyqırıq - ‘yelp’
  • kekirik - ‘burp’
  • ketik - ‘chip(ped part)’
  •  ?tütük - ‘pipe’
  • kürök - ‘shovel’
  • tayaq - ‘stick/cane/prop/support’
  • jölök - ‘prop/support’
  • tilek - ‘wish’
  • buyruq - ‘command’

-(I)M

  • ağım - ‘flow’
  • kesim - ‘slice’
  • çeçim - ‘decision’
  • kiyim - ‘clothes/clothing’

-AK

  • jataq - ‘standing [e.g., question]’
  • uzaq (vs. uzun)

-MA

... No, this is too productive

-MAl

These might just be Mongolian words in Kyrgyz?

  • saamal - horse milk (< saa- - to milk (could be Turkic or Mongolic))
  • açımal - fermeneted w:jarma (< açı- - to ferment (v.i.))
  • tarmal - curly (of hair)
  • tuqtamal - suddenly
  • tejemel - child being artificially fed??
  • şişimel - puffed up (< şişi- - to swell/puff up)
  • taanımal - familiar

-DAK

V>N, N>A?

  • шырдак
  • куурдак
  • ардак(?)
  • балдак(?)
  • ажылдак
  • буудак
  • жайдак "bareback"
  • кумдак
  • кызгалдак
  • муздак
  • саадак
  • саздак
  • тоңкулдак woodpecker
  • чаңдак
  • чардак gull

-nAKAy

Adj → Adj

  • jaqşınaqay - ~nice (< jaqşı - good)
  • jönököy - simple (< jön - simple?)
  • tatınaqay - ~cute (< tatuu - sweet)
  • kiçinekey - little (< kiçüü - ~small)

Misc

  • кап- capture, grab
    • капкан trap
    • капкак lid
    • каптал side