JNW's English

From FireSpeakerWiki

The pronunciation of words, as per Jonathan North Washington

[ʌ]

  • strawberry - [ˈstʰɻʌbÆɹij]
  • wash - [wʌʃ]
  • Washington - [ˈwʌʃɪŋtɩn]
  • squash - [skwʌʃ]

[wɔ]

  • quarter - [ˈkʰɔɻɾɻ] (but quarry - ['kwɔɻij])
  • quartz, quarts, courts - [kʰɔɹts] (is there a difference in aspiration?)

[ɛ]

  • catch - [kʰɛʧ]
  • that (conj) - [ðɛt]
  • antenna - [ɛnˈtɛnə]

[ʌj]

  • /ɑj/ before voiced consonants is [ɑj]
    • 'eyes' [ɑjz]
    • 'bide' [bɑjd]
  • /ɑj/ before unvoiced consonants is [ʌj]
    • 'ice' [ʌjs]
    • 'bite' [bʌjt]
  • there are "exceptions" (they could be rule-based, having something to do with what counts as syllable-coda, or maybe part-of-speech?)
    • Idaho [ʌj], Ida [ʌj]
    • cider [ʌj], spider [ʌj]
    • icon [ɑj], nikon [ʌj], daikon [ɑj]
    • cyclops [ʌj / ?ɑj], but psycho [ʌj / *ɑj]
    • irregular plurals:
      • life [ləi̯f] → lives [ləi̯vz], *[lai̯vz]
  • interesting contrasts:
    • high [ɑj], high school [ʌj]
    • 'I scream' [ɑj], 'ice cream' [ʌj]

[Æ]

See Æ for phonetic information on this vowel.

  • /ej/ before /l,r/ is [Æ]
    • ail/ale - [Æl]
      • Al - [æl] (shows /æ/Æ/ contrast)
      • trailer (before a movie) - [ˈtˢɻʰÆlɻ]
      • trailer (behind a truck) - [ˈtˢɻʰejlɻ]
      • mailing / Maling (/Æ/ej/)
      • Beowulf (/Æ/)
        • tractor-trailer (the way I said it as a kid) - [ˈtˢɻʰæktɻ ˌtˢɻʰÆlɻ]
        • those two 'trailer's have recently merged to [ˈtˢɻʰejlɻ], but trail+er is still [ˈtˢɻʰÆlɻ]
      • nightmare - [ˈnʌjtmejɻ]
      • "night mare" - [ˈnʌjtmÆɻ]
    • air - [Ær]
  • /æ/ before /m,n/ is [Æ]
    • an, hand - [Æn], [hÆnd]
      • Hannah - [ˈhænə]
  • /æ/ before /ŋ,g/ is [æj]
    • wagon, hang - [wæjgɩn], [hæjŋ]

/ɩ/ (vs. /ə/ & /ɪ/)

  • Reduced vowels are typically realised as [ə] in English:
    • about — [ə ˈbau̯t]
    • beneath — [bə ˈniːθ]
    • Winnepesauki — [wɪ nə pə ˈsɒ ki]
    • onomatopœia — [ɑ nə mɑ ɾə ˈpiː ə]
  • In closed syllalbes, reduced vowels are realised as [ɩ]:
    • This is visible in the application of several morphemes.
      • rose-s — /ˈɻɤo̯ zɩz/
      • test-ed — /ˈtʰɛ stɩd/
      • ox-en — /ˈɑk sɩn/
    • This can be seen in many other words.
      • Jonathan — /ˈʤɑ nə θɩn/
      • happen(ed) — /ˈhæ pɩn(d)/
    • This can also be demonstrated derivationally.
      • religion — /ɻə ˈlɪ ʤɩn/
      • religionise — /ɻə ˈlɪ ʤə nɑi̯z/ (some less morphemic parsings lend to /ɻə ˈlɪ ʤɩ nɑi̯z/, with an almost syllabic [ʤ̩] often
  • In a closed syllable with a labial coda, reduced vowels are realised as [ə]:
    • This is visible in the application of several (clitical) morphemes.
      • he'll've — [ˈhɪl əv]
      • get 'em — [ˈgɛ ɾəm]
    • This is visible in some other words, though I can mostly only think of names and made-up words.
      • item — [ˈʌi̯ ɾəm], victim — [ˈvɪk(t) təm]
      • Jacob — [ˈʤe kəp]
      • Caleb — [ˈkʰei̯ ləb]
      • *soroft — [ˈsɔɻ əft]
    • I take that back; I seem to've found some good examples
      • turnip — [ˈtɻnəp]
      • victim — [ˈvɪkt təm]
      • system — [ˈsɪs stəm]
      • bottom — [ˈbɑ ɾəm]
      • custom — [ˈkʌs stəm]
      • olive — [ˈɑləv]
      • exclusive — [ɛkˈsklusəv]
      • sheriff ­— [ˈʃᴁɻəf]
      • Phillip — [ˈfɪləp]
      • gossip — [ˈgɑsəp]
      • atom — [ˈæɾəm]
      • pilgrim — [ˈpɪlgɻɪm]
      • bottom — [ˈbɑɾəm]
      • interim — [ˈɪn.ɻ.əm]
      • tulip — [ˈtʉ.ləp]
  • Words with "normal" reduced /ɪ/
    • culprit — ['kəlprɪt]
  • Data that still need to be considered:
    • words like:
      • confuse
      • condition
    • other words like:
      • civil, civilisation
      • get 'im vs. get 'em
        • get 'im [ˈkɛɾɪm] (unexpected}
        • get 'em [ˈkɛɾəm] (expected, but contrast unexpected)
      • presumably (how do I syllabify this??)
    • the pair mistake [mɨ(s)ʼstejk] / mistook [mɪs'tʊk]
    • -tion /ʃɪn/ (expected)
    • -ive /ɪv/ (unexpected)
    • -ic /ɪk/ (unexpected)

[ɒ] as an allophone of /ɑ/

  • /ɑ/ → [ɒ] / _ {ɻ,l}
  • Except before /l/ it seems to be only at the end of syllables (or morpheme boundaries):
    • collar / caller = [kɑlɻ̩] / [kɒlɻ̩]
    • holler / hauler = [hɑlɻ̩] / [hɒlɻ̩]
    • similar to Maling / mailing = [mei̯lɪŋ] / [mᴁlɪŋ] above
    • collie [kɑli]
    • cauliflower [kɑləflawɻ̩]
    • also similar to /ə/ and /ʌ/ merging and then splitting again to [ə] and [ɨ] (the latter of which's merged with /ɪ/ now).

voicing

Some consonants are [un]voiced in a way that's unexpected:

  • Jacob — [ˈʤe kəp]
  • Virginia — [ˈfɻʤɪnjə]
  • ostrich, sandwich — [ˈɒstɻɪdʒ], [ˈsÆndwɪdʒ]
  • congratulations — [kn̩gɻæʤəˈlei̯ʃɪndz]

Also, it's interesting to look at stuff across syllable boundaries. Not sure what the phonetics are like, should investigate some time.

  • substitute — [ˈsʌpstətʉt]
  • hubcap — [ˈhʌpkæp] (?)
  • Presbyterian

other

  • comfortable - [ˈkʰʌ̃ftʰɻb(ə)ɫ]
  • Wednesday - [ˈwɛn(d)zdej]
  • February - [ˈfɛbjʉwÆɻij]
  • Adirondecks - [ædɻ̩ˈɑndæks]
  • helicopter - [ˈhɪləkɑptɻ]

Deletion

/ə/ in first syllable

  • p(o)tato
  • p(a)thetic
  • k(a)tana
  • t(o)mato
  • v(a)riety
  • p(o)litical [plɪ.ɾə.kɨl]

/ə/ elsewhere

The generalisation here seems to be that after a stressed syllable, /ə/ is deleted when /ɻ̯/ or /l/ (or /n/) that can start a syllable follows. These are also all formerly penultimate /ə/s, making the stressed syllable now penultimate.

As a table

V j w r l m n ŋ vcd fric vcless fric vcd stop vcless stop
V Be(o)wulf [ˈbei.wʊlf] the(o)ry [ˈθiɻ.i] vi(o)let [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪʔ]
vi(o)lent [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪ̃ʔ]
vi(o)lence [ˈvɑɪ̯.lɪns]
alve(o)lar [ælˈvi.lɻ]
Samuel [ˈsᴁm.jʊl] / [ˈsᴁm.jəl]
cas(u)alty [ˈkæʒ.əl.ti]

jew(e)lry [ˈʤul.ɻi](~[ʤu.lɻ.i])
jew(e)ler [ˈʤu.lɻ]

di(a)mond [ˈdɑi̯.mɪnd] may(o)nnaise [ˈmᴁn.ei̯z]
Li(o)nel [ˈlɑi.nəl]
Ro(a)noke [ˈɻo.nok]
valu(a)ble [ˈvæl.jʉ.bʊl](jʉ~jɨ~jə) di(a)per [ˈdəi̯.pɻ]
le(o)pard [ˈlɛ.pɻd]
je(o)pardy [ˈʤɛ.pɻ.ɾi]
j
w
r temper(a)mental [ˌtɛmp.ɻˈmɛn.l] or(a)nge [ˈoɻnʤ]

veter(i)narian [vɛɾ.ɻˈnᴁɻ.i.ɪn]
col(o)nel [ˈkɻ.nəl]

Dor(o)thy [ˈdɔɻ.θi] miser(a)ble [ˈmɪz.ɻ.bʊl]
l
m adm(i)ral [ˈædˌmɻɨl]

cam(e)ra [ˈkᴁm.ɻə]
num(e)ral [ˈnʉm.ɻəl]
em(e)rald [ˈɛm.ɻəld]
Cam(e)ron [ˈkᴁm.ɻɪn]
hem(o)rrhage [ˈhɛm.ɻɪʤ]
hem(o)rrhoid [ˈhɛm.ɻɔɪ̯d]
adm(i)rable [ˈæd.mɻə.bɨl]
cam(a)raderie [kɑmˈɻɑ.ɾɻ.i]

fam(i)ly

om(e)lette [ˈɑm.lɪʔ]

nom(i)native [ˈnɑm.nə.ɾɪv]
n gen(e)ral

gen(e)ralise
gen(e)ralisation
fun(e)ral [ˈfɪu̯n.ɻʊl]
min(e)ral [ˈmɪn.ɻəl] (cf. mineralogy [mɪn.ɻˈɑl.ə.ʤi])

ŋ
vcd fric fav(ou)rite

sev(e)ral
ev(e)ry [ˈɛvɻi]
Ev(e)rette [ˈɛvrɪʔ]
rev(e)rence [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪns]
rev(e)rend [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪnd]
sov(e)reign [ˈsɑv.ɻɪn]
bev(e)rage [ˈbɛv.ɻɪʤ]
av(e)rage [ˈæv.ɻɪʤ]
Ev(e)rest [ˈɛv.ɻɪst]
cov(e)rage [ˈkəv.ɻɪʤ]
lev(e)rage [ˈlɛv.ɻɪʤ]
mis(e)rable [ˈmɪz.ɻə.bʊl]
Canav(e)ral [kəˈnæv.ɻəl]

priv(i)lege
trav(e)ller [ˈtɻæv.lɻ]
unfath(o)mable [ənˈfæð.mə.bʊl] (cf. fathom [ˈfæðəm]) ev(e)ning [ˈiv.nɪŋ]

reas(o)nable [ˈɻiz.nə.bʊl]
bus(i)ness [ˈbɪz.nɪs]
~pris(o)ner [ˈpɻɪzn̩ɻ̩] / [ˈprɪznɻ̩]

vcless fric ? naus(e)ous [ˈnɒ.ʃɪs] (deletion of /i/??)
diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]

diff(e)rence [ˈdɪf.ɻɪns]
ref(e)rence [ˈɻɛf.ɻɪns]
diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]
conf(e)rence [ˈkɑn.fɻɪns]

couns(e)lor [ˈkæu̯ns.lɻ]
Cath(o)lic
math(e)maticians [mæθ.məˈtɪ.ʃɪns]
vcd stop ? outrag(e)ous [au̯ʔˈɻei̯.ʤɪs] (deletion of /i/??) lib(e)ral [ˈlɪb.ɻəl]

callab(o)rative [kəˈlæ.bɻə.ɾɪv]
Barb(a)ra [ˈbɒɻˌbɻə]
delib(e)rate [dəˈlɪ.bɻɨʔ] (cf. deliberate (v.) [dəˈlɪ.bɻ.eiʔ])
lab(o)ratory
fed(e)ral
Fred(e)rick [ˈfɻɛ.dɻɪk]
bound(a)ry [ˈbau̯n.dɻi]
considerable [kənˈsɪ.ɾɻ.ə.bɨl] (*consid(e)rable)
collab(o)rative [kəˈlæ.bɻə.ɾɨv] (cf. collaborate [kəˈlæ.bɻ.eiʔ]

resemblance [ɻəˈzɛm.blɪns] (cf. resemble [ɻəˈzɛm.bʊl]

assembly [əˈsɛm.bli] (cf. assemble [əˈsɛm.bʊl], others' assembly [əˈsɛm.bʊl.i]

cabinet */kʰæbənɪʔ/, */kʰæbnɪʔ/, √/kʰæbn̩ɪt/

gard(e)ner [ˈgɒɻd.nɻ] (cf. garden [ˈgɒɻ.ɾɪn])
card(i)nal [ˈkɒɻd.nəl] (cf. cardinality [ˌkɒɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]
ord(i)nance [ˈɔrd.nɪns] (cf. ordinality [ˌɔɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]

veg(e)table [ˈvɛʧtəbl̩] (not tʰ!)
vcless stop asp(i)rin /ˈæs.pɻɪn/

prep(a)ratory?
resp(i)ratory
temp(e)rature
sep(a)rate (adj.)
desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
amp(e)rage [ˈᴁmpɻɪʤ] (syllabification?)
temp(o)ral [ˈtɛmp.ɻəl] (syllabicity? but compare temporary [ˈtɛmp.ɻ.ᴁɻ.i]
desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
op(e)rative [ˈɑp.ɻə.ɾɪv] (cf. operate [ˈɑ.pɻ.ei̯ʔ]
corp(o)rate [ˈkɔɻ.pɻɪʔ]
op(e)ra [ˈɑp.ɻə]
laˈp(a)roscopy / ˌlap(a)roˈscopic
diasp(o)ra [dɑɪ̯ˈæ.spɻə]
corp(o)ra [ˈkɔɻ.pɻə]
ast(e)roid
int(e)rest [ˈɪn.tɻɪst]
element(a)ry [ɛl.əˈmɛn.tɻi]
dext(e)rous [ˈdɛks.tɻɪs]
complement(a)ry [kɑmp.ləˈmɛn.tɻi] / ??[kɑmp.ləˈmɛ.nɻ.i]
entrance [ˈɛn.tɻɪns] (cf. enter [ˈɛnɻ])
mackerel [ˈmæk.ɻəl]

Zepp(e)lin [ˈzɛp.lɪn] short(e)ning (noun) [ˈʃɔɻʔnɪŋ]

plat(i)num [ˈplæʔ.nəm]
fright(e)ning [ˈfɻəɪ̯ʔ.nɪŋ]
light(e)ning [ˈləɪ̯ʔnɪŋ]
Nitt(a)ny [ˈnɪʔni]
Britt(a)ny [ˈbɻɪʔni]
tet(a)nus [ˈtɛʔnɪs]
ret(i)na [ˈɻɛʔnə]

affricate imag(e)ry [ˈɪ.mɪ.ʤɻi]/[ˈɪ.mɪʤ.ɻi] bach(e)lor [ˈbæʧ.lɻ]

As a table (2)

V j w r l m n ŋ vcd fric vcless fric vcd stop vcless stop
V Be(o)wulf [ˈbei.wʊlf] the(o)ry [ˈθiɻ.i] vi(o)let [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪʔ]
vi(o)lent [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪ̃ʔ]
vi(o)lence [ˈvɑɪ̯.lɪns]
alve(o)lar [ælˈvi.lɻ]
Samuel [ˈsᴁm.jʊl] / [ˈsᴁm.jəl]
cas(u)alty [ˈkæʒ.əl.ti]

jew(e)lry [ˈʤul.ɻi](~[ʤu.lɻ.i])
jew(e)ler [ˈʤu.lɻ]

di(a)mond [ˈdɑi̯.mɪnd] may(o)nnaise [ˈmᴁn.ei̯z]
Li(o)nel [ˈlɑi.nəl]
Ro(a)noke [ˈɻo.nok]
valu(a)ble [ˈvæl.jʉ.bʊl](jʉ~jɨ~jə)

diadem [ˈdɑɪ.əˌdɛm]

di(a)per [ˈdəi̯.pɻ]
le(o)pard [ˈlɛ.pɻd]
je(o)pardy [ˈʤɛ.pɻ.ɾi]
r temper(a)mental [ˌtɛmp.ɻˈmɛn.l]

Jeremey [ˈʤᴁɻ.ə.mi]

or(a)nge [ˈoɻnʤ]

veter(i)narian [vɛɾ.ɻˈnᴁɻ.i.ɪn]
col(o)nel [ˈkɻ.nəl]

Dor(o)thy [ˈdɔɻ.θi] miser(a)ble [ˈmɪz.ɻ.bʊl]
l celery [ˈsɛl.ɻ.i]

calorie [ˈkæl.ɻ.i]

colony [ˈkɑl.ə.ni] filament [ˈfɪl.ə.mɪ̃ʔ] qualify [ˈkwɒl.ə.fɑɪ]

elephant [ˈɛl.ə.fɪ̃ʔ]

haplology [hæpˈlɑl.ə.ʤi]

elegant [ˈɛl.ə.gɪ̃ʔ]

soliloquy [səˈlɪl.ə.kwi]

quality [ˈkwɒl.ə.ɾi]

m adm(i)ral [ˈædˌmɻɨl]

cam(e)ra [ˈkᴁm.ɻə]
num(e)ral [ˈnʉm.ɻəl]
em(e)rald [ˈɛm.ɻəld]
Cam(e)ron [ˈkᴁm.ɻɪn]
hem(o)rrhage [ˈhɛm.ɻɪʤ]
hem(o)rrhoid [ˈhɛm.ɻɔɪ̯d]
adm(i)rable [ˈæd.mɻə.bɨl]
cam(a)raderie [kɑmˈɻɑ.ɾɻ.i]
limerick [ˈlɪm.ɻ.ɪk]
enumerate [əˈnʉ.mɻ.ei̯ʔ]
summary [ˈsəm.ɻ.i]
Emory [ˈɛm.ɻ.i]

fam(i)ly

om(e)lette [ˈɑm.lɪʔ]
Pamela [ˈpᴁmələ]
Emily [ˈɛm.ə.li]

nom(i)native [ˈnɑm.nə.ɾɪv]
n gen(e)ral

gen(e)ralise
gen(e)ralisation
fun(e)ral [ˈfɪu̯n.ɻʊl]
min(e)ral [ˈmɪn.ɻəl] (cf. mineralogy [mɪn.ɻˈɑl.ə.ʤi])
generous [ˈʤɛn.ɻ.ɪs]
generate [ˈʤɛn.ɻ.eiʔ]

finalize

analyse [ˈᴁn.ə.lɑɪz]

dynamite [ˈdɑɪ.nə.məɪʔ]

cinema [ˈsɪnəmə]

Jonathan [ˈʤɑn.ə.θɪn] vinegar [ˈvɪn.ə.gɻ] genitive [ˈʤɛn.ə.ɾɪv]

quanity [ˈkwɑn.ə.ɾi]

ŋ
vcd fric fav(ou)rite

sev(e)ral
ev(e)ry [ˈɛvɻi]
Ev(e)rette [ˈɛvrɪʔ]
rev(e)rence [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪns]
rev(e)rend [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪnd]
sov(e)reign [ˈsɑv.ɻɪn]
bev(e)rage [ˈbɛv.ɻɪʤ]
av(e)rage [ˈæv.ɻɪʤ]
Ev(e)rest [ˈɛv.ɻɪst]
cov(e)rage [ˈkəv.ɻɪʤ]
lev(e)rage [ˈlɛv.ɻɪʤ]
mis(e)rable [ˈmɪz.ɻə.bʊl]
Canav(e)ral [kəˈnæv.ɻəl]

priv(i)lege
trav(e)ller [ˈtɻæv.lɻ]
unfath(o)mable [ənˈfæð.mə.bʊl] (cf. fathom [ˈfæðəm]) ev(e)ning [ˈiv.nɪŋ]

reas(o)nable [ˈɻiz.nə.bʊl]
bus(i)ness [ˈbɪz.nɪs]
~pris(o)ner [ˈpɻɪzn̩ɻ̩] / ?[ˈprɪznɻ̩]

vcless fric ? naus(e)ous [ˈnɒ.ʃɪs] diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]

diff(e)rence [ˈdɪf.ɻɪns]
ref(e)rence [ˈɻɛf.ɻɪns]
diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]
conf(e)rence [ˈkɑn.fɻɪns]

couns(e)lor [ˈkæu̯ns.lɻ]
Cath(o)lic
math(e)maticians [mæθ.məˈtɪ.ʃɪns] Bethany [ˈbɛθ.ə.ni]
vcd stop ? outrag(e)ous [au̯ʔˈɻei̯.ʤɪs] lib(e)ral [ˈlɪb.ɻəl]

Barb(a)ra [ˈbɒɻˌbɻə]
delib(e)rate [dəˈlɪ.bɻɨʔ] (cf. deliberate (v.) [dəˈlɪ.bɻ.eiʔ])
lab(o)ratory
fed(e)ral
Fred(e)rick [ˈfɻɛ.dɻɪk]
bound(a)ry [ˈbau̯n.dɻi]
collab(o)rative [kəˈlæ.bɻə.ɾɨv]
collaborate [kəˈlæ.bɻˌei̯ʔ]
considerable [kənˈsɪ.ɾɻ.ə.bɨl]

resemblance [ɻəˈzɛm.blɪns] (cf. resemble [ɻəˈzɛm.bʊl]

assembly [əˈsɛm.bli] (cf. assemble [əˈsɛm.bʊl], others' assembly [əˈsɛm.bʊl.i]

cabinet */kʰæbənɪʔ/, */kʰæbnɪʔ/, √/kʰæbn̩ɪt/

gard(e)ner [ˈgɒɻd.nɻ] (cf. garden [ˈgɒɻ.ɾɪn])
card(i)nal [ˈkɒɻd.nəl] (cf. cardinality [ˌkɒɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]
ord(i)nance [ˈɔrd.nɪns] (cf. ordinality [ˌɔɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]

veg(e)table [ˈvɛʧtəbl̩] (not tʰ!)
vcless stop asp(i)rin /ˈæs.pɻɪn/

prep(a)ratory?
resp(i)ratory
temp(e)rature
sep(a)rate (adj.)
desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
amp(e)rage [ˈᴁmpɻɪʤ] (syllabification?)
temp(o)ral [ˈtɛmp.ɻəl] (syllabicity? but compare temporary [ˈtɛmp.ɻ.ᴁɻ.i]
desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
op(e)rative [ˈɑp.ɻə.ɾɪv] (cf. operate [ˈɑ.pɻ.ei̯ʔ]
corp(o)rate [ˈkɔɻ.pɻɪʔ]
op(e)ra [ˈɑp.ɻə]
laˈp(a)roscopy / ˌlap(a)roˈscopic
diasp(o)ra [dɑɪ̯ˈæ.spɻə]
corp(o)ra [ˈkɔɻ.pɻə]
ast(e)roid
int(e)rest [ˈɪn.tɻɪst]
element(a)ry [ɛl.əˈmɛn.tɻi]
dext(e)rous [ˈdɛks.tɻɪs]
complement(a)ry [kɑmp.ləˈmɛn.tɻi] / ??[kɑmp.ləˈmɛ.nɻ.i]
entrance [ˈɛn.tɻɪns] (cf. enter [ˈɛnɻ])
mackerel [ˈmæk.ɻəl]
separate (v.t.)
licorice [ˈlɪk.ɻ.ɪs]/[ˈlɪk.ɻ.ɪʃ]
decorate [ˈdɛk.ɻ.eiʔ]
interim [ˈɪn.ɻ.əm] ?*[ˈɪn.(t)ɻəm]
victory [ˈvɪk.tɻ.i]

Zepp(e)lin [ˈzɛp.lɪn]

Nicholas [ˈnɪk.ə.lɪs]

short(e)ning (noun) [ˈʃɔɻʔnɪŋ]

plat(i)num [ˈplæʔ.nəm]
fright(e)ning [ˈfɻəɪ̯ʔ.nɪŋ]
light(e)ning [ˈləɪ̯ʔnɪŋ]
Nitt(a)ny [ˈnɪʔni]
Britt(a)ny [ˈbɻɪʔni]
tet(a)nus [ˈtɛʔnɪs]
ret(i)na [ˈɻɛʔnə]
shortening (verb)
maintenance [ˈmẽi̯ʔ.n̩.ɪns]

affricate imag(e)ry [ˈɪ.mɪ.ʤɻi]/[ˈɪ.mɪʤ.ɻi] bach(e)lor [ˈbæʧ.lɻ]


Immediately following a stressed vowel

  • vi(o)let [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪʔ]
  • vi(o)lent [ˈvɑɪ̯lɪ̃ʔ]
  • vi(o)lence [ˈvɑɪ̯.lɪns]
  • the(o)ry [ˈθiɻ.i]
  • alve(o)lar [ælˈvi.lɻ]
  • valu(a)ble [ˈvæl.jʉ.bʊl](jʉ~jɨ~jə)
  • di(a)mond [ˈdɑi̯.mɪnd]
  • di(a)per [ˈdəi̯.pɻ]
  • Samuel [ˈsᴁm.jʊl] / [ˈsᴁm.jəl]
  • may(o)nnaise [ˈmᴁn.ei̯z]
  • cas(u)alty [ˈkæʒ.əl.ti]
  • Be(o)wulf [ˈbei.wʊlf]
  • le(o)pard [ˈlɛ.pɻd]
  • je(o)pardy [ˈʤɛ.pɻ.ɾi]
  • Ro(a)noke [ˈɻo.nok]

V́C[labial]_C[liquid]

V́v_r
  • fav(ou)rite
  • sev(e)ral
  • ev(e)ry [ˈɛvɻi]
  • Ev(e)rette [ˈɛvrɪʔ]
  • rev(e)rence [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪns]
  • rev(e)rend [ˈɻɛv.ɻɪnd]
  • sov(e)reign [ˈsɑv.ɻɪn]
  • bev(e)rage [ˈbɛv.ɻɪʤ]
  • av(e)rage [ˈæv.ɻɪʤ]
  • Ev(e)rest [ˈɛv.ɻɪst]
  • cov(e)rage [ˈkəv.ɻɪʤ]
  • lev(e)rage [ˈlɛv.ɻɪʤ]
  • Canav(e)ral [kəˈnæv.ɻəl]
V́v_l
  • priv(i)lege
  • trav(e)ller [ˈtɻæv.lɻ]
V́m_r
  • adm(i)ral [ˈædˌmɻɨl]
  • cam(e)ra [ˈkᴁm.ɻə]
  • num(e)ral [ˈnʉm.ɻəl]
  • em(e)rald [ˈɛm.ɻəld]
  • Cam(e)ron [ˈkᴁm.ɻɪn]
  • hem(o)rrhage [ˈhɛm.ɻɪʤ]
  • hem(o)rrhoid [ˈhɛm.ɻɔɪ̯d]
  • adm(i)rable [ˈæd.mɻə.bɨl]
V́m_l
  • fam(i)ly
  • om(e)lette [ˈɑm.lɪʔ]
V́p_r
  • asp(i)rin /ˈæs.pɻɪn/
  • prep(a)ratory?
  • resp(i)ratory
  • temp(e)rature
  • sep(a)rate (adj.)
  • desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
  • amp(e)rage [ˈᴁmpɻɪʤ] (syllabification?)
  • temp(o)ral [ˈtɛmp.ɻəl] (syllabicity? but compare temporary [ˈtɛmp.ɻ.ᴁɻ.i]
  • desp(e)rate [ˈdɛs.pɻɪʔ]
  • op(e)rative [ˈɑp.ɻə.ɾɪv] (cf. operate [ˈɑ.pɻ.ei̯ʔ]
  • corp(o)rate [ˈkɔɻ.pɻɪʔ]
  • op(e)ra [ˈɑp.ɻə]
  •  ? naus(e)ous [ˈnɒ.ʃɪs] (deletion of /i/??)
  •  ? outrag(e)ous [au̯ʔˈɻei̯.ʤɪs] (deletion of /i/??)
  • laˈp(a)roscopy / ˌlap(a)roˈscopic
  • diasp(o)ra [dɑɪ̯ˈæ.spɻə]
  • corp(o)ra [ˈkɔɻ.pɻə]
V́p_l
  • Zepp(e)lin [ˈzɛp.lɪn]
V́b_r
  • lib(e)ral [ˈlɪb.ɻəl]
  • callab(o)rative [kəˈlæ.bɻə.ɾɪv]
  • Barb(a)ra [ˈbɒɻˌbɻə]
  • delib(e)rate [dəˈlɪ.bɻɨʔ] (cf. deliberate (v.) [dəˈlɪ.bɻ.eiʔ])
  • lab(o)ratory
  • collab(o)rative [kəˈlæ.bɻə.ɾɨv] (cf. collaborate [kəˈlæ.bɻ.eiʔ]
V́b_l
  • resemblance [ɻəˈzɛm.blɪns] (cf. resemble [ɻəˈzɛm.bʊl]
  • assembly [əˈsɛm.bli] (cf. assemble [əˈsɛm.bʊl], others' assembly [əˈsɛm.bʊl.i]
V́f_r
  • diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]
  • diff(e)rence [ˈdɪf.ɻɪns]
  • ref(e)rence [ˈɻɛf.ɻɪns]
  • diff(e)rent [ˈdɪf.ɻɪ̃ʔ]
  • conf(e)rence [ˈkɑn.fɻɪns]

other

V́t_r
  • ast(e)roid
  • int(e)rest [ˈɪn.tɻɪst]
  • element(a)ry [ɛl.əˈmɛn.tɻi]
  • dext(e)rous [ˈdɛks.tɻɪs]
  • complement(a)ry [kɑmp.ləˈmɛn.tɻi] / ??[kɑmp.ləˈmɛ.nɻ.i]
V́n_r
  • gen(e)ral
  • gen(e)ralise
  • gen(e)ralisation
  • fun(e)ral [ˈfɪu̯n.ɻʊl]
  • min(e)ral [ˈmɪn.ɻəl] (cf. mineralogy [mɪn.ɻˈɑl.ə.ʤi])
V́s_l
  • couns(e)lor [ˈkæu̯ns.lɻ]
V́d_r
  • fed(e)ral
  • Fred(e)rick [ˈfɻɛ.dɻɪk]
  • bound(a)ry [ˈbau̯n.dɻi]
V́θ_l
  • Cath(o)lic
V́ʧ_l
  • bach(e)lor [ˈbæʧ.lɻ]
V́..ʤ_r
  • imag(e)ry [ˈɪ.mɪ.ʤɻi]/[ˈɪ.mɪʤ.ɻi]

V́C[dorsal]_C[liquid]

V́k_l
  • choc(o)late [ˈʧɒk.lɪʔ]
  • -ic(a)lly words:
    • basic(a)lly [ˈbei̯sɪkli]
    • technic(a)lly [ˈtɛknɪkli]
    • etc.
  • Berk(e)ley [ˈbɻk.li]
  • Jacq(ue)line [ˈʤæklɪn]


V́k_r
  • dec(o)rative [ˈdɛkɻərɪv] -[tʰɪv]?
  • mack(e)rel [ˈmæk.ɻəl]
V́g_l
V́g_r
  • Marg(a)ret [ˈmɒɻ.gɻɪʔ]
  • Niag(a)ra [nɑi̯ˈæi̯.gɻə]

n

V́v_n
  • ev(e)ning [ˈiv.nɪŋ] (otherwise expected, but newscasters have been saying [ˈiv.ə.nɪŋ] recently)
V́b_n
  • cabinet */kʰæbənɪʔ/, */kʰæbnɪʔ/, √/kʰæbn̩ɪt/
V́t_n
  • short(e)ning (noun) [ˈʃɔɻʔnɪŋ]
  • plat(i)num [ˈplæʔ.nəm]
  • fright(e)ning [ˈfɻəɪ̯ʔ.nɪŋ]
  • light(e)ning [ˈləɪ̯ʔnɪŋ]
  • Nitt(a)ny [ˈnɪʔni]
  • Britt(a)ny [ˈbɻɪʔni]
  • tet(a)nus [ˈtɛʔnɪs]
  • ret(i)na [ˈɻɛʔnə]
V́d_n
  • gard(e)ner [ˈgɒɻd.nɻ] (cf. garden [ˈgɒɻ.ɾɪn])
  • card(i)nal [ˈkɒɻd.nəl] (cf. cardinality [ˌkɒɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]
  • ord(i)nance [ˈɔrd.nɪns] (cf. ordinality [ˌɔɻ.ɾəˈnæl.ə.ɾi]
V́z_n
  • reas(o)nable [ˈɻiz.nə.bʊl]
  • bus(i)ness [ˈbɪz.nɪs]
other n
  • or(a)nge [ˈoɻnʤ]
  • nom(i)native [ˈnɑm.nə.ɾɪv]

variation

  • miser(a)ble [ˈmɪz.ɻ.bʊl] / mis(e)rable [ˈmɪz.ɻə.bʊl]
  • veter(i)narian [vɛɾ.ɻˈnᴁɻ.i.ɪn] / ?vet(e)rinarian ??[ˌvɛ.tɻəˈnᴁɻ.i.ɪn]
  •  ?Li(o)nel [ˈlɑi.nəl] / Lionel [ˈlɑi.ə.nʊl]

other

  • col(o)nel [ˈkɻ.nəl]
  • math(e)maticians [mæθ.məˈtɪ.ʃɪns]
  • Dor(o)thy [ˈdɔɻ.θi]
  • veg(e)table [ˈvɛʧtəbl̩] (not tʰ!)
  • entrance [ˈɛn.tɻɪns] (cf. enter [ˈɛnɻ])
  • unfathomable [ənˈfæð.mə.bʊl] (cf. fathom [ˈfæðəm])
  • jew(e)lry [ˈʤul.ɻi](~[ʤu.lɻ.i])
  • jew(e)ler [ˈʤu.lɻ]
  • temper(a)mental [ˌtɛmp.ɻˈmɛn.l]
  • Zor(o)astrian
  • cam(a)raderie [kɑmˈɻɑ.ɾɻ.i]

But no deletion:

  • finalize
  • separate (v.t.)
  • shortening (verb)
  • celery [ˈsɛl.ɻ.i]
  • colony [ˈkɑl.ə.ni]
  • dynamite [ˈdɑɪ.nə.məɪʔ]
  • analyse [ˈᴁn.ə.lɑɪz]
  • Nicholas [ˈnɪk.ə.lɪs]
  • vinegar [ˈvɪn.ə.gɻ]
  • calorie [ˈkæl.ɻ.i]
  • limerick [ˈlɪm.ɻ.ɪk]
  • operation [̩ɑp.ɻˈei̯.ʃɪn]
  • filament [ˈfɪl.ə.mɪ̃ʔ]
  • licorice [ˈlɪk.ɻ.ɪs]/[ˈlɪk.ɻ.ɪʃ]
  • decorate [ˈdɛk.ɻ.eiʔ]
  • interim [ˈɪn.ɻ.əm] ?*[ˈɪn.(t)ɻəm]
  • generous [ˈʤɛn.ɻ.ɪs]
  • generate [ˈʤɛn.ɻ.eiʔ]
  • maintenance [ˈmẽi̯ʔ.n̩.ɪns]
  • enumerate [əˈnʉ.mɻ.ei̯ʔ]
  • summary [ˈsəm.ɻ.i]
  • collaborate [kəˈlæ.bɻˌei̯ʔ]
  • corporation [ˌkɔɻp.ɻˈei.ʃɪn]
  • genitive [ˈʤɛn.ə.ɾɪv]
  • Jonathan [ˈʤɑn.ə.θɪn]
  • Bethany [ˈbɛθ.ɨ.ni]
  • quality [ˈkwɒl.ə.ɾi]
  • qualify [ˈkwɒl.ə.fɑɪ]
  • quanity [ˈkwɑn.ə.ɾi]
  • diadem [ˈdɑɪ.əˌdɛm]
  • Jeremey [ˈʤᴁɻ.ə.mi]
  • victory [ˈvɪk.tɻ.i]
  • Emory [ˈɛm.ɻ.i]
  • considerable [kənˈsɪ.ɾɻ.ə.bɨl]
  • cinema [ˈsɪnəmə]
  • Pamela [ˈpᴁmələ]
  • prosecutor
  • Emily [ˈɛm.ə.li]
  • elephant [ˈɛl.ə.fɪ̃ʔ]
  • elegant [ˈɛl.ə.gɪ̃ʔ]

Acceptable variation?

  • veteran/vet(e)ran
  • sal(a)ry?
  • mem(o)ry/mem(o)ries? (latter dialectal?)
  • interested/int(e)rested [ˈɪn.tɻə.stɪd]/[ˈɪn.ɻˌɛs.tɪd]
  • mystery/myst(e)ry?
  • warran(t)y [ˈwɒɻ.ə.ni] / warr(a)n(t)y [ˈwɒɻ.ni]
  • literature/lit(e)rature/liter(a)ture (second British, third American?)
  • sentence/sent(e)nce [ˈsɛnɪns]/[ˈsɛ̃ʔ.n̩s]/?[ˈsɛn.tn̩s]
  • severance/sev(e)rance [ˈsɛv.ɻ.ɪns]/[ˈsɛv.ɻɪns]
  • math(e)matics/mathematics [mæθˈmæ.ɾɪks]/[mæθ.əˈmæ.ɾɪks]

/ɻ/, apparently

Nancy Hall seems to've made a career out of this:

Never pronounced:

  • Feb(r)uary — [ˈfɛbjʉwᴁɻ̯i]
  • tu(r)meric — [ˈtʰʉmɻɪk]
  • Swa(r)thmore — [ˈswɑθmɔɻ̯]
  • Albu(r)querque
  • bomba(r)dier

Many of these /ɻ/s are pronounced in cases hyperarticulation or careful speech, but even then not always.

  • su(r)prise — [səˈpɻɑi̯z]
  • rese(r)voir — [ˈɻ̯ɛzəvwɒɻ̯]
  • kinde(r)garten — [ˈkʰɪndəgɒɻ̯dn̩]
  • cate(r)piller — [ˈkʰæɾəpɪlɻ]
  • adve(r)sary — [ˈædvəsᴁɻ̯i]
  • vet(er)inarian — [vɛdn̩ˈᴁɻiɪn]~[vɛɾəˈnᴁɻiɪn]
  • be(r)serk
  • paraphe(r)nalia — [̩pᴁɻ.ə.fəˈnɛl.jə]
  • repe(r)toir
  • p(r)erogative
  • Pache(l)bel
  • defrib(r)ulator — [dəfɻɪbjəlei̯ɾɻ̩]
  • inf(r)ared
  • gove(r)nor

Kind of [not] pronounced, or unsure:

  • fo(r)ward — ['fɔ(ɻ̯)wɻd]
  • inf(r)astructure
  • ap(er)ture
  • pa(r)ticular
  • southe(r)ner
  • pe(r)turbed
  • fo(r)lorn
  • Be(r)nard
  • No(r)thrup
  • Cante(r)bury
  • the(r)mometer
  • cereb(r)al palsy
  • elde(r)berry

Seems natural not to pronounce /r/, but I do anyway [most of the time]:

  • spect(r)ogram
  • ve(r)nacular
  • Wate(r)bury
  • Otte(r)burn
  • ente(r)prise
  • comfo(r)ter

Always pronounced:

  • laboratory
  • preparatory
  • respiratory
  • temperature
  • literature
  • photographer
  • stenographer
  • secretary
  • proprietress
  • fratricide
  • entrepreneur
  • proliferate
  • Labrador
  • interpret
  • frustration
  • celebratory
  • professor
  • impropriety
  • northerner
  • afterwards
  • hamburger
  • offertory
  • forward?
  • formerly
  • perform
  • perfumery
  • corporation
  • dormitory
  • formerly
  • incorporate
  • corner
  • extraordinary
  • Forster's turn
  • order
  • ordinary
  • ornery
  • orthography
  • portrait
  • quarter
  • warrior
  • farmer
  • farther
  • Girard
  • parliamentary
  • parlor
  • further
  • murder(er)
  • itinerary
  • furniture

Insertion

  • perse(r)vere
  • inte(r)gral
  • fa(r)miliar
  • cate(r)gorise
  • sherbe(r)t
  • barbe(r)cue

Unsure

  • pho(r)tographer
  • lava(r)tory
  • au(r)thor

No insertion

  • pe(r)jorative
  • ce(r)lebrity
  • ele(r)vator
  • benefici(r)ary
  • contractu(r)al
  • ferv(r)ent
  • heart-rend(r)ing
  • f(r)uneral

Long /r/:

  • error
  • juror
  • mirror
  • terror
  • sufferer
  • there're
  • for her

Syllabic /r/s:

  • deteriorate
  • interior

Clitics

Object pronouns

  • Notes:
    • vowels in cliticised forms are shorter than in full forms (e.g. mi, jʉu̯, etc are shortened)
Object pronouns
example me you him her it us them
full forms [mi] [jʉu̯] [hɪm] [hɻ] [ɪʔ] (/ɪt/) [əs] [ðɛm]
i_ see [simi] [si.ʉu̯] [si.ɪm] [si.ɻ] [si.ɪʔ] [si.əs] [si.əm]
u_ sue [sʉmi] [sʉjʉu̯] [sʉ.ɪm]/[sʉwɪm] [sʉ.ɻ]/[sʉwɻ] [sʉ.ɪʔ]/[sʉwɪʔ] [sʉ.əs]/[sʉwəs] [sʉ.əm]/[sʉwəm]
t_ hate [heʔmi]/[hei̯mmi] [heʔjʉu̯]/[hei̯ʧə] [hei̯ɾɪm] [hei̯ɾɻ] [hei̯ɾɪʔ] [hei̯ɾəs] [hei̯ɾəm]

Other

  • I don't [ai̯ə̃u̯ʔ]

Subject pronouns

This page illustrates some (synchronic) irregularities in English pronoun+clitic combinations. This focusses mainly on cliticised forms of "to be" and "to have" in JNW English.

An E in the Actual column means the Expected forms are also found, but only in hypercorrect speech.

Orthography Pronoun Clitic Expected Actual Reduced
I'll ɑi̯ l (E) ɑl ɑl
he'll hi(i̯) l (E) hɪl hlˌ
she'll ʃi(i̯) l (E) ʃɪl ʃlˌ
we're wi(i̯) ɻ 'wijɻ (E) wᴁɻ̯
we've wi(i̯) əv 'wi(jə)v wi(i̯)v wɨv¹
we'll wi(i̯) l wɪl wʊl
you're jʉ(u̯) ɻ 'jʉwɻ (E) jɔɻ̯
you've jʉ(u̯) əv 'jʉ(wə)v jʉ(u̯)v jɨv¹
you'll jʉ(u̯) l jʊl jɪl [jɯl]
they're ðe(i̯) ɻ ˈðejɻ ðᴁɻ̯ ðɻ
they've ðe(i̯) əv ðe(i̯)v ðev?
they'll ðe(i̯) l ðɪl [ðɯl]

Words I never got

Because of the loss of sarcasm in fixed expressions using these words (or something like that), I never could tell what they meant—the general idea was there, but as far as I could tell, their antonyms seemed as correct as they did, if not more.

  • immaculate
  • impeccable
  • trivial
  • vicariously

Family-specific vocabulary

  • glurpy
  • heffle
  • zitis
  • scrumfle
  • ring-ding
  • mitcher

Other People

My Family

Some family members have "weird" pronunciations:

  • [ˈdɑjəpɹ] for [ˈdʌjpɹ] ("diaper")
  • [ˈdɑjəmənd] for [ˈdɑjmɩnd] ("diamond")
  • [hɒp] for [hɑp] ("hop")
  • [ˈrɛs.stɻ.ənt] for [ˈrɛs.stɻ.ɑnt] ("restaurant")
  • [wɪð] for [wɪθ]
  • [bə ˈkʌs] for [bə ˈkʌz]
  • [ə sow ʃij ˈej ʃɩn] for [ə sow sij ˈej ʃɩn] ("association")
  • [mə ˈtɻ jəl] for [mə ˈtijɻ ij əl] ("material")

Media

Some media (music, commercials) have objectionable rhymes:

  • pauper/copper/whopper
  • choclate/pocket
  • ‘ooh and aah’ where ‘aah’ == ‘aww’
  • see also: Other People's English

Overall vowel system

JNW's Vowels
location tense lax diphthong ɻ diphthong examples
front
high i(i̯)¹ ɪ/ɨ ɪu̯ iɻ̯, jɻ heed, hid, hued, hear, pure
mid e(i̯)¹ ɛ ᴁɻ, — hayed, head, hair
low æ¹ au̯ —, awɻ/aɯ̯ɻ̯/aɻ̯ hand/hail, had, how, —, hour/how're
back
low ɒ³ ɑ ɑi̯ ɒɻ̯, ai̯ɻ̯ hawed, odd, high, hard, hire/higher
mid ɤ(u̯)¹³ ə əi̯ ɔɻ̯, — hoed, hut, height, hoard/horde/whore
high ʉ(u̯)¹³ ʊ³ ɔi̯ ɔɻ̯, ɔjɻ hoot, hood, Hoyt, tour, lawyer

Notes:

  • ¹ Long or diphthongal
  • ² Can be nucleus of heavy syllable
  • ³ Rounding optional
  • Maybe /o/ is the the dipthongal mid-front vowel, and /ɻ/ is tense mid-back vowel.. but then there'd be two before-/ɻ/ versions for mid-front... hm.
  • Maybe the mid-front gap is because /əu̯/ from GVS merged with /au̯/. And maybe this gap is the cause for Valley Girl o → /ɛu̯/.

Generalisations:

  • Back vowels rounded before /ɻ/, front vowels not; back vowels generally more likely to be rounded
  • All back tense vowels have optional rounding. Yiddish /ɔ/ borrowed as JNWE /ə/.
  • Non-low tense vowels are optionally long or diphthong
  • Front vowels diphthongise to back high point; back vowels to front high point. The tense vowels are opposite. Hmm...


JNW's vowel system
Front Back
peripheral base diphthong with ɻ base peripheral diphthong with ɻ
High i ɪ ɪu̯ iɻ̯ ʊ ʉ ɔi̯ ɔɻ̯
Mid e ɛ ᴁɻ̯ ə o əi̯ ɻ
Low æ æu̯ a ɒ ai̯ ɒɻ̯

Another attempt

Phonetic data to back this up is being analysed at Jonathan and Tristan's Big Phonetic Project.

JNW's vowel system, take 2/3/whatever
Front Back
peripheral base base peripheral
High i ɪ ʊ ʉ
iɻ̯ ɪu̯ ɔi̯ ɔɻ̯
Mid e ɛ ə ɻ
əu̯ əi̯
Low æ a ɒ
ᴁɻ̯ æu̯ ai̯ ɒɻ̯

Notes:

  1. Back peripheral vowels are optionally rounded.
  2. Front peripheral vowels are optionally diphthongised.
  3. All non-high non-back vowels + /ɻ̯/ are realised as /ᴁ/; low-back as /ɒ/, high-back as /ɔ/, high-front as ~/i/
  4. Mid-back vowels don't occur with /ɻ̯/.


And an orthography for it:

JNW's vowel system, take 2/3/whatever
Front Back
peripheral base base peripheral
High ee i oo uu
ir iu oi or
Mid ei e u r
ou ui
Low ae/ea? a aa oa/ao?
er au ai ar

Consonant system

JNW's vowel system
bilabial labio-dental interdental dental/alveolar retroflex dento/alveo-palatal velar glottal
stop p b t d ʧ ʤ k g ʔ
fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
nasal m n ŋ
lateral l
glide w ɻ j

Child phonology

  • [ˈnɑʔni] / [ˈnɑʔnɪn] — /ˈʤɑnəθɪn/
  • [məˈnəmʔtɻək]? — /ˈdəm(p)tʰɻək/

True stress minimal pairs

  • import
  • upset

Back to Linguistic Musings