Tæĺf

From FireSpeakerWiki

Sound changes from Tēlvo

What changed

  • noun & verb pre- and post-bound forms for 2, 3, 4, and 5 phoneme radicals.
  • all other non-noun and -verb words
    • including declined forms of pronouns
  • personal endings as if stressed

The changes

  • o → u / __ X[+labial]
  • unstressed short vowels reduce
    • a → ɐ
    • o,e → ə
    • i,y,u → ʉ/ɨ
  • reduced vowels disappear, diphthongise
    • {ə,ʉ,ɐ} → ∅ / __ #
    • {ʉ,ə} → {ʉu̯,əu̯} / __ ]σ
  • stressed long vowels shifted down; long low vowels diphthongised:
    • ī → ē, ē → ǣ, ā → au̯, ō → ā, ū → ō
  • Long vowels shorten in a closed syllable
    • Vː → [-long] / __ C1]σ
    • ī → i, ē → e, ǣ → æ, ā → a, ō → o, ū → u
  • ŋg → ŋ
  • non-sonorant consonants devoice at the end of a word
    • C[-son] → [-voice] / __ #
    • except for the personal ending -áð and the corresponding pronoun háð
  • consonants devoice before a devoiced consonant (/sound)
    • C → [-voice] / __ C[-voice]
  • non-coronal (dental/alveolar) fricatives become stops word-finally when after a vowel or voiced sonorant
    • C[-coronal] → [+stop] / V __ #
    • C[-coronal] → [+stop] / C[+son,+vc] __ #
  • voiced non-nasal labials and velars (non-coronals) become approximants
    • C[+cons,-cor,-nas,+vc] → [+approx]
    • {u̯,v,w} → w
  • some things become stops at the beginning of syllables:
    • ɣ,ŋ → g / σ[ __
    • w → b / σ[ __
  • some things become stops at the end of words or syllables:
    • w → p / __ #
  • big changes in codas:
    • l → o̯ / V __ C0 ]σ
    • {k,g,z} → {x,ɣ,j} / {V,C[+son]} __ C1 ]σ
    • C[+stop,-vc] → [-stop] / __ C1 ]σ
    • j → ś / {w,o̯,j} __ ]σ
    • w → p / j __ ]σ (e.g., / j __ C )
    • ś → j / __ x C ]σ
  • continual process of devoicing reapplies to fix recent problems
    • {o̯,w} → f / __ C[-vc]
  • some vowels don't take nicely to o̯:
    • oo̯ → ō
  • beginning of words starting with vowels acquire an h, if vowel is long, vowel shortens:
    • V → [-long] / # __
    • ∅ → h / # __ V
  • at the beginning or end of a syllable, coronal palatal simplification:
    • {tj,dj,sj,zj,nj} → {ts,dz,ś,j,j} / σ[ __ , __ ]σ
  • h → ∅ / C[-stop,-son] __ ]σ

Orthography

  • Devoiced sonorants:
    • l → ĺ, r → ŕ, n → ń, m → ḿ, ŋ → ŋ´, j → ś
  • glide
    • o̯ → ɬ
  • vowels
    • ɨ/ʉ → y, ɐ → a, a → á
  • pronunciation of some vowels:
    • y [ɜ], ə [ə], u [ʊ], i [ɪ], o [ɔ], e [ɛ], æ [a], a [ɐ], á [ɑ], ū [u], ī [i], ō [o], ē [e], ā [ɒ], ǣ [æ]

Phonology

Morphology

indicates missing copula (see note 1)
-k distributiviser/relativiser, for postpositions (see note 5)
áwrə + verb.preBF future gerund or participle
áwrə + verb.preBF + (j +) pronoun future gerund
beā locative, at
bir in
ble + j + pronoun [pronoun]'s own (e.g., 'blejás' = 'your own')
brer temporal locative, during, at the time of
ðek like, as (postposition)
futGerund + pronoun + [necessary] [it is necessary that] subject verb[s], subject['s] verb[ing is necessary], subject [needs to] verb, subject [should] verb
futGerund + pronoun + [possible] [it is possible that] subject verb[s], subject['s] verb[ing is possible], subject [is able to / can] verb
[tense]Gerund + pronoun + tsuj subject try[tense] to verb
futGerund + [come] verb tense: immediate future
futParticiple + [give] verb tense: future
háð s/he/it (3rd.sg.nom)
háfþ you (2nd.pl.nom)
hás you (2nd.sg.nom)
háwŋ we (1st.pl.nom)
háwn they (3rd.pl.nom)
həwyðeā me (1st.sg.dat)
hasyɬjáp your (2nd.sg.gen)
ho I (1st.sg.nom)
hojā my (1st.sg.gen)
kə (/ke) + verb.preBF passive participle
kaj + verb.preBF causative gerund or participle
kaj + verb.preBF + (j +) pronoun causative gerund
keft QUOT1 (see note 3)
kesm QUOT2 (see note 3)
laj + verb.preBF past gerund or participle
laj + verb.preBF + (j +) pronoun past gerund
liry + verb.preBF present gerund or participle
liry + verb.preBF + (j +) pronoun present gerund
mij instrumental
noun.citeF-[y-]noun.citeF compound noun phrase (see note 4a)
noun.citeF-[y-]noun.preBF compound noun phrase (see note 4a)
noun.postBF oblique (followed by cases/postpositions)
noun.postBF + (j +) pronoun possessed/ive form
noun.postBF + (j +) əla (+ j + pronoun) plural
noun.postBF noun distributive (see note 4)
noun.postBF-[y-]noun.citeF compound noun phrase (see note 4a)
passParticiple + [put] finite form of passive voice
passParticiple + [stay] verb tense: [such a situation definitely exists]
presParticiple + [stay] verb tense: [such a situation exists]
tēmə + noun.preBF doer, agent; more generally, person whose job deals with noun
tsáŋ because of, since, for
þá accusative
verb.citeF infinitival form
verb.postBF (+ j) + pronoun finite form, usually present tense
verb.postBF + (y + ) lā(/laj) negative
verb.postBF + (y +) tsā + j + pronoun past tense
verb.postBF + saŋa + j + pronoun imperative
yðeā dative, to, towards

Lexicon

Some Vocab

BJÐS (bæjðəs) world
bleŋk again
DGGW (dæɣgəp) milk
DNT (dæńt) gift
DNT (dānatá) give
DRK (dāraká) become
ÐÞRK (ðæþrək) amazing thing, marvel
ÐKL (ðākalá) keep
FÐR (fæðr) writing implement (pen, pencil, quill)
FÐR (fāðará) write
FJT (fājatá) drink (verb)
FRL (færl) story
FRL (fāralá) say (archaic: recount)
FSH (fāsahá) push
FSH (fāsahá) push (see note 2a)
GŊF (gæŋ́f) command (noun)
GŊF (gāgafá) command (verb)
ŊJ (gawś) scream, cry out, shriek
her very
het this
HLÐ (hæĺþ) cougar
HMJK (hæmjək) hamster; any small rodent (e.g., mouse, gerbil; most squirrels and rats would be considered large rodents)
hojś! exclamation of surprise: "oy!", "ay!", "omg!"
jelyj but
JH (jáf) go (see note 2a)
JL (jæɬ) year
kəlamzyjānā unnecessary
kəmzyjáwnō necessary
KJ (káfś) put
KL (kawl) stay
KLK (kæĺk) wolf; scary or dangerous animal, monster
KLV (kālabá) come
KMV (kæḿp) rope, string
KN (kæn) sun; day
KRŊ (kāragá) address, hail
kuhkaɬ much
LVS (læfs) blanket, cover, covering (sometimes: rug, carpet)
LVS (lābasá) cover (verb)
MJS (mæśs) life
MJSH (mæśsəh) baby (see note 2a)
MKK (mæxk) any sort of armed force: army, military, police, etc
MLN (mæln) belief, faith, religion
MM (mæm) mother
momgyn possible
MTN (mætn) declaration
MTN (mātaná) declare
what, which
NKL (naxl) ordinary, plain, normal
rep one
RG (ráfk) lead (verb)
RJ (ráfś) see
RNL (rānalá) die
RZDT (ræzdət) birth (noun)
RZDT (rāzadátī) give birth (verb)
SFRNZ (sāfaránis) hope; pray non-secularly
SLM (sæɬm) eye
SM (sæm) name (noun)
soɣr soon
SSLS (sæsləs) honour (noun)
SSLS (sāsalásī) honour (verb)
STKN (sætkən) mug, cup, glass, goblet; any container with a wide, open top which liquid is poured into and drunk from (e.g., not a flask)
tefr too
TJD (tæśt) age, oldness (noun)
TJD (tājadá) age (verb)
TJD (teśt,tejde) aged, old (adj)
TLL (tæĺĺ) thickness
TLL (tālalá) to be thick
TLL (teɬle) thick
TRV (tæŕf) fear (noun)
TRV (tārabá) fear (verb)
ÞNDT (þændət) woman, any female creature
ÞRFN (þæŕfən) priest, any religious leader
ÞRRS (þærrəs) alcoholic beverage, spirits: usually cider, but also applies to wine, beer, ale, vodka, etc. (of these, only cider and various wines are native to Tæĺf speakers)
VNTJ (bānatájī) exclaim, sound/peal (of a horn/bell)
VRK (bāraká) bless, make holy/divine; make non-secularly divine/special
VRTZ (bāratázī) help, assist
VTN (bātaná) speak, talk
ZSD (zāsadá) cut, slice; split, divide
ZVR (zæwr) gate, opening

Some Constructions