Similarities to Turkic

From FireSpeakerWiki

The orthography used to represent Turkic languages on this page is a phonemic system based on Turkish orthography.
This is done to avoid focusing on the phonetic differences between different languages used.
The IPA is used when describing the phonetics of Turkic languages.

This is a collection of Turkic words which appear at least superficially similar to words in other language groups. No relation between Turkic and any of the other languages is suggested or implied, though I feel that some of the words must at least be borrowings in one direction or another. The list is kept for my own purposes for now: some day I hope to spend time sorting it out and investigating the history of each word more closely. For now it's just a place to keep all the words.

Technology

metals, materials, tools

  • altın - gold
    • Proto-IE ǵʰel- - to shine
      • Germanic gold
        • Finnish kulta gold
  • bulat - steel, balta - axe
    • Tokharian porat, peret axe
    • Proto-IE pelk'- chop
    • Aramaic bwlʔd/pwld (pūlāð) steel
  • balqa - hammer
    • Aramaic plq(ˀ) (pleq, pelqā) - axe
    • Latin marculus
    • Mongolian aluqa
  • ara - saw
    • Tokharian áre plough (n.)
  • *yez - copper
    • Proto-IE *ai̯os - metal (copper/iron)
      • Tokharian *yäs → yasa/wäsa
      • Latin aurum*ausum - gold
  • *baqır - copper
    • Latin (aes) Cyprium - copper ((brass) of Cyprus)
      • OE coper
      • German Kupfer
      • Icelandic kopar
  • *kömür - coal
    • Aramaic gmurtā coal
      • Assyrian Neo-Aramaic qomur (<Turkish?)

artefacts

  • *köp(ü)r(üg)/*köpüre? - bridge (cf. Kyrgyz köpürö)
    • Proto-IE *bʰruh- - bridge
      • Tokharian pärwāṃ/pärwāne - eyebrow
      • Greek γέφυρα (gépʰura)
    • Chinese 橋梁
      • Old Chinese grew raŋ
      • Middle Chinese gjew lɨaŋ
      • Cantonese kiu4 loeng4
      • Japanese kyōryō
    • Mongolic *köxürge/*kögür
  •  ?çıraq - lamp (< Persian?)
    • Iranian
      • Khotanese Saka cärau
      • Sogdian črʔɣ (čirāʁ?)
      • Iron ciraɣ, Digor cyraɣ
      • Persian čirāɣ
    • Aramaic šrg- ?
  •  ?ayna - mirror; ?aynek - glass (< Persian?)
    • Iranian *ādaina-/*ādayana → *āidana- → ...
      • Iron aidæn, Digor aidænæ - mirror
      • Sogdian ʔʔðʔynʔk (āðaynak?) - mirror
      • Persian āyīne - mirror
      • Balochi ādēnk - mirror
      • Khotanese Saka āyäna- - mirror
  • *(y)igne - needle
    • Proto-Uralic *äjmä - needle
  • *tām - hut, walled structure (in opposition to a yurt)
    • Proto-IE *dṓm - house / *dema - build
      • (Tocharian tsäm - grow in size/number)
      • Sanskrit dám
  • *şatı - ladder/steps/stairs
    • Proto-IE *gʰredʰ- - march, step
    • Proto-IE *steigʰ- - march, ascend
      • OHG stega - stairs
  •  ?*tabaq - plate
    • Middle Persian tapah - pot
    • Mongolic ?*tabaq - plate
  • *qazan - cauldron, kettle
    • Proto-Germanic *kazã - vessel, vat, tub, barrel
  • çaŋğır - sled
    • Proto-Yeniseian *tsehʷəl - snowsled

grains

  • (kaz. dän, kir. dan; < Persian)
    • Tokharian (B) tāno - grain
  •  ?*sulu - oats
    • Chinese 飼料 - fodder
      • Mandarin sìliào
      • Cantonese zi6 liu6-2
  • tarığ - millet
    • Proto-IE *dr̥Hweh₂ - cereal grain (of some sort?)
      • Proto-Germanic *tarwō - cereal grain
        • English tare - vetch
      • Sanskrit दूर्वा (dūrvā) - millet
    • Mongolic *tariya - millet, cereal grain
  • *boza - fermented drink
    • Proto-IE *bʰeusóm - "dross, sediment, brewer's yeast"
      • Proto-Germanic *beuzą - beer
  • *arpa - barley (/millet)
    • Proto-Mongolic *arbai
    • Proto-Japonic *àpá
      • Japanese awa
    • Manchu *arfa
    • Proto-Germanic *harwaz/hazwaz - flax
    • Ossetian кӕрвӕдз [kərvədz], хъӕбӕрхор [qəbərxor]
    • Aramaic ˁbwr(ˀ) [ˁăḇūr(ā)] - grain
    • Proto-IE *albʰi - barley
      • Proto-Iranian *arba
  • *sıra - beer (in some NW languages and Chuvash)
    • Sanskrit súrā - alcohol, wine

other

  • *yūrt(ă?) - ring left when yurt is moved, place where a yurt is set up, (homeland, "campsite", "yurt")
    • PIE' gʰerdʰ- enclose, encircle; with derivatives meaning “enclosure.”
      • Germanic *gardaz - enclosure; court, yard; garden
        • English yard
      • Germanic *gárdō - hedge, fence; enclosure, pen; court, yard; garden; house
        • Old Saxon gardo
      • Slavic *gordŭ - city, town
      • Sanskrit गृह gṛhá - house
      • Hittite gurtas - citadel
      • Tokharian warto, wärto garden, grove
    • PIE er(+t) earth
      • Germanic erθō-
        • English earth
        • German erd
      • Tokharian B yare gravel
    • Semitic ˀarḍ earth
      • Early Aramaic ˀarð̣ā
    • Mongolian ger yurt
    • Proto-IE *wer- defend, close
  • *yük - a load, *yüd- - to load
    • Proto-IE *i̯eu̯-g- - tie together, yoke
    • Mongolic *joge (?) - to carry
  • *mal - livestock
    • Tokharian (A) śemäl - cattle, livestock
    • Mongolic mal - livestock
    • Proto-Semitic ?
      • Arabic māl (مال) - wealth/property
      • Aramaic ml(ˀ) [māl(ā)] - wealth
  • (kir. topu - hat)
    • Sanskrit ?ṭopī
  • *taqiğu/taqağu - chicken
    • Mongolic *takiya(n)
    • Proto-Semitic ?
      • Arabic dajāja
  • *yelim - glue
    • Proto-IE gleh₁y- glue (v.) (with lots of derivatives)
  • *qalpaq - hat
    • Proto-Slavic *klobukŭ
    • Middle Persian kwlʾp̄

Nature

flora

  • alma - apple
    • Proto-IE h₂ebl-o-
      • Germanic *æpl
      • Russian jablo-
      • Latin/Romance pom-
      • Greek melo-
  • ot - grass (*oti?, cf. Chuvash utə)
    • Proto-IE ad- grain
      • Tokharian A/B āti/atiyo ← *ātiyā grass
    • Proto-IE *ḱóyno-
      • Old Armenian խոտ (xot) grass
    • Caucasian something...
      • Archi гьоти (hoti) grass
      • Andi кIордо (k’ordo) grass
      • Rutul хьытІ (xyt’) barley
      • Tsakhur хьытIа (x’yt’a) barley
      • Udi ход (xod) tree
      • Avar гъветІ (ġvet’) tree
      • Georgian ხე (xe) tree
  • *yapurgaq - leaf (*yepirdek, *yapirmaq, etc.)
    • Proto-Semitic *waraq green
      • Arabic waraq leaf, sheet, paper
      • Aramaic yārōq yellow-green, vegetable; yreq vegetation
      • Hebrew yaroq green, yereq vegetation, yaraq vegetable
    • Persian barg leaf?
    • Tokharian pält, pilta
    • Proto-IE bʰel
  • *tal - willow
    • Ket dɯˑl - willow
    • Proto-Athabaskan *č’ʷətɬ’ - plant, shrub
  • *elme - elm tree
    • Proto-IE *h₁élem
      • English elm
  • *sāban (?*-m-) - straw
    • Proto-IE *sop-/*sep-? - needle, reed
  •  ?badam (Iranic borrowing?) - almond
    • Tokharian watām - almond
  • *qadɯŋ - birch / *qarağay - juniper / *qaraqan - acacia
    • Proto-Uralic *koxji - birch
    • Baltic
      • Old Prussian kaddegs - juniper
      • Latvian kadiķis - juniper
      • Lithuanian kadagys - juniper
  • *balır - algae, muck, swamp; *balqaş - swamp
    • Proto-IE *bʰ◌lt-?
      • Illyrian balta ‘swamp, marsh, white clay’
        • Latin blatea f., ‘excrement lump’, adalm. balta ‘sea swamp´
      • Ligurian *bolü - ‘swamp, marsh’
      • Slavic *bolto- (*bholǝto-) - ‘swamp, marsh, pond, pool, sea’
        • O.C.S. blato - ‘sea’
        • Ser.-Cr. blȁto - ‘sea, ordure”,
        • Russian boloto - swamp, bog; dial. bil - ‘swamp, marsh’; bala (*bhōlü): balaružina - ‘puddle, slop’
        • Polish dial. biel f. - ‘marshy wood, forest;
        • Clr. balka “ marsh “;
      • Lithuanian balà m. - ‘swamp, marsh, moor, fen, pool’
      • Albanian baltë f., balt m. - ‘slime, mud, swamp, marsh, white clay’
      • English pool
  • *terek - tree, poplar
    • Proto-IE **drw (*derw, *drēw)
    • Aramaic drḥt
  • *otun - firewood, fuel
    • Proto-IE *widʰu wood, firewood, forest (only Germanic and Celtic?)
  • tamır/tımar/damar - root, vein
    • Tokharian (A) tsmār - root
  • *erük - apricot
    • Byzantine Greek βερικοκκίᾱ - apricot
      • Modern Greek βερύκοκο - apricot

fauna

  • teke - goat
    • Proto-IE tek- - to flow, to run
    • Proto-IE digʰ- - goat
  • ökiz - ox
    • Proto-IE *uks-en- - ox
      • Germanic *uhsōn - ox
        • English ox
      • Tokharian B okso - cow
    • Mongolic *üker - cow
  • balɯq - fish
    • Proto-IE l—k salmon
    • Proto-IE *pesk/*h₂p-isk- fish
    • Germanic *bullaka-z a kind of fish - de: Bolch, nl: bolk
    • Japanese ɕake salmon
  • *qāz - goose
  • *qarğa - crow
    • Proto-IE *ḱórw-eh₂- - crow
  • *qurt - worm
    • Proto-IE wr̥-mi- - worm
  • *bȫrü - wolf
    • Proto-IE ???
      • Ossetian бирæгъ
      • Mazanderani ورگ (verg)
      • Sanskrit वृक (vṛ́ka)
      • Hindi bhēṛhiyā
    • Caucasian languages
      • Lak barc̣ (pl. burc̣i-l)
      • Chechen борз
    • Uralic languages
      • Erzya верьгиз
      • Eastern Mari пире
      • Western Mari пирӹ
      • Moksha врьгаз
  • *qar(ı)şqır - wolf
    • Proto-IE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos - bear
  • *sas-na, *çoç-qa - pig
    • Proto-IE *sū◌s - pig
  • *buzağu - ~young bull
    • Mongolic *bira-ɣu
    • Proto-IE *mozǵʰo-s (only Armenian and Greek)
    • Proto-IE *bʰugo- "buck"
      • Avestan *buza "buck, goat"
  • *kene - tick, mite
    • Proto-IE *knid, ḱnid - louse, nit
  • *iŋäk (?) - cow
    • Tibetan nak - female yak
  • *yün/*yuŋ - wool
    • PIE u̯el-n- / *h₂welh₁- +‎ *-néh₂
      • O.Ind. ū́rṇü / Sanskrit ūrṇā
      • Iranian
        • Shughni wôwn
        • Sarikoli won
        • Khwarazmian w'n
      • Greek ληνος
      • Germanic *wullō
  • *qumırsqa - ant
    • PIE *moru̯i-
      • Latin formīca
      • Sanskrit vamrah
      • Greek myrmex
      • Sanskrit valmīka- - Ameisenhaufen
      • Greek βόρμᾱξ - Ameisenhaufen
    • PIE *kʷr̩mis "worm"
      • Lithuanian kirmis "worm, maggot, snake"
      • Sanskrit कृमि kṛmi "worm"
      • Proto-Slavic čĭrvĭ "worm"
      • Persian کرم kerm "worm"
  • *baqa - frog
    • Iranian
      • Middle Persian wk
        • Modern Persian bæk
      • Kurmancı baq
  • būqa - bull
    • PIE *bʰugo- "buck"
      • Proto-Germanic *bukkô "male goat"
  • *iyt/yit(ă)? - dog
    • Oroch inda

sky/time/weather

  • kün - day, sun
    • Proto-IE *sóh₂wl̩ (gen. sh²u̯en-s) sun
      • Germanic sun
      • Tokharian B kaum̩/kon-/kaun- day
      • Avestan xʷan (nom. húu̯arə̄)
  • yil - year
    •  ?Proto-IE yōr-
      • English year
  • yaz (*yaaŕ) - spring
    • Proto-IE yōr- year
  • ań - moon, month
    • (pre-Proto-Turkic *ā́ńu, most Turkic ay)
    • Latin annus - year
    • Gothic *aþni - year
  • *bulut - cloud
    • Proto-IE *melōdʰ - elevation, head
    • Etruscan falatu - sky
  • *taŋri (?) - sky, heaven
    • Japanese *tenki - weather
    • Chinese
      • Mandarin tiān - sky, day
      • Cantonese tin1 - sky, day
    • PIE *dAnǵʰ- - sky, heavenly body
      • Lithuanian dangùs - sky, heaven
  • **qıra~qarı (?) > qār, yur - snow
    • Celtic *argyo- - snow
    • Iranian *wap-ra - snow
      • Gorani vværwæ, værw
  • *(h?)ayāŕ < *(p?)ańāŕ - frost
    • Proto-IE
  • *kȫk (Chuvash kŏwak) - blue; sky/heaven
    • Mongolic köke - blue
    • Sanskrit गगन gagana - sky, heaven
    • Yucatec Maya káʼan - sky, heaven
  • *tuman - fog
    • Proto-IE ???*dʰuH₁-mo- - smoke
    • PIE *dʰuh₂mós - smoke
      • Sanskrit dhūmá - smoke, mist
      • Avestan dunman - smoke(?)
      • Russian дым - smoke

land and water

  • yer - earth, land
    • PIE ġʰ—r(+dʰ) to grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning “enclosure.”
      • Germanic gard
        • English yard
        • German garten
      • Tokharian warto, wärto garden, grove
    • PIE er(+t) earth
      • Germanic erθ
        • English earth
        • German erd
      • Tokharian B yare gravel
    • Semitic ˀarḍ earth
    • Mongolian ger yurt
    • Proto-IE *wer- defend, close
  • sub - water
    • Proto-IE seu-, su- rain, flow
    • Proto-IE *sūwe- to rain
      • Tokharian su- / swāsā-
      • Greek hǖei̯
      • Albanian ši
    • Proto-IE *h₂ep- water
    • Mongolian us
    • Mandarin shui3
    • Cantonese seoi2
  • bulaq - spring, well
    • Latin flus- river
    • Proto-IE bhleu-gʷ- overflow
    • English flow, float
  • *köl - lake
    • Proto-Yeniseian kʰul - water
  • *yar- - cliff ([early] Iranian borrowing?)
    • Proto-IE *ner - to conceal, cover, hiding place, hollow
  • *tāş - stone
    • Mongolic *tila-ɣu
    • Etruscan *tul
    • Korean dol
    • Old Indic śilā
    • Ket təˀs
  • tāğ - mountain
    • Mongolian ta__-sun
      • Khalkha тоос - dust, dirt
    • Chinese
      • Mandarin - soil, earth
      • Cantonese tou2 - soil, earth
    • Japanese take - mountain

other

  • *bāl - honey
    • Proto-IE - *mélh₁
    • Proto-IE - *mélit
      • Albanian, Anatolian, Armenian, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Italic
    • Proto-IE - *médʰu
      • Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Tokharian, Uralic
      • Iranian *mádu
        • Bactrian molo
      • Indic *mádʰu
        • Romani mol
  • *may(?) - fat
    • Finno-Ugrian *vaj/voj - butter
  • *ot - fire
    • Proto-IE *āt(e)r-
  • *ört - fire (destructive)
    • Proto-IE *āt(e)r-
      • Proto-Iranian *āθr
        • Ossetic art
  • ımır - ripples, ımırqay - pinkish, ımırt - dawn
    • Tokharian (A) wmār - jewel, pearl
  • et - meat
    • Sogdian yātē

Verbs

  • qal - stay
    • Germanic halt, hold
  • ber - give
    • Proto-IE bʰer - carry, bear
      • Russian брать - take
    • Proto-IE per - go over, carry over, bring
  • bış-/piş- - cook (v.i.), -ır (v.t.)
    • Proto-IE pekʷ-
      • OCS peš-tь < *pékʷ-tis
        • Russian печь
      • Tokharian päk-
      • O. Indic pacati
      • Avestan pačaiti
    • Proto-IE *bʰeh₃g-
      • English bake
  • tur - stand, stay
    • Germanic en: dare, yi: tor
    • Proto-IE ter - to cross, transgress, to stay
    • Japanese tat - to stand up"
  • je - eat
    • Proto-IE h₁ed-
    • Mongolic id
  • çab- - cut
    • English chop
    • Spanish zapatas - shoes
    • French sabotage
  • *iç- - drink
    • Proto-IE *h₁egʰʷ (*ekʷ-?) - drink
      • Tokharian (B) yok
    • Proto-IE *aḱ
    • Proto-IE *ēkʷ- - water
  • gäp-ir - something said, speak (later Iranian borrowing)
    • English jabber, gab
    • Russian говорить - speak
    • Proto-IE gebh- - jaw, mouth
  • öl - die
    • Tokharian wäl - die
    • Germanic (OE) wæl / (ON) val - slain person
  • *teg-/*tek- - touch
    • Proto-IE **th₂g-n- - to touch
      • Germanic
        • Gothic tēkan
        • English take
      • Tokharian B täk/tak - touch, feel; take
      • Latin tang-
    • Proto-IE ?
      • English touch
    • Japanese tuk- - to be attached / turned on
    • Proto-IE *deḱ - accept ritually
  • se(b/p?)- - to plant
    • Proto-IE *sē- - sow
    • Proto-IE *seip/seib - pour, rain, sift, sieve, stream, trickle, dribble
  • sebele- - to sprinkle
    • Proto-IE *seip/seib - pour, rain, sift, sieve, stream, trickle, dribble
  • öö(j?)- - to think, understand
    • Proto-IE *ous ear
  • saqı- - to think
    • Proto-IE *sekʷ- - to see
  • yaq- - to light, make burn
    • Proto-IE *dʰégʷʰ - to burn (v.t.?)
  • *qap- - to snatch
    • Proto-IE *gʰabʰ- - to take
    • Tokharian (A) kälp - acquire, attain
  • *ket- - to go away, leave
    • Proto-IE *ked- - to go, yield
    • Tokharian (A) kätk- - go beyond, exceed, traverse
  • *kes- - to cut
    • Proto-IE *ḱes-
    • Tokharian (A) kärṣt - cut off
    • Japanese kir- - cut
  • *qarı- - to grow old
    • Proto-IE *gerh₂- - to grow old
  • *tug-ur - tent covering
    • Proto-IE *tog- - to cover
  • *yorı-/yür(i)- - walk / *yügür- - run
    • Proto-IE *dʰor- - to jump (at)
    • Proto-IE *gʷʰðer- - to run, flow
  • *siŋ- - sink into (get soaked up?)
    • Proto-IE *teng - to soak, wet
    • Proto-IE *sengʷ - to fall, to sink
  • *yet- - reach
    • Proto-IE *yet - to set out for, to strive
  • *qud- - pour
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰeu - pour
      • Gothic giutan - pour
      • Tokharian (A?) ku- - pour
  • *tök- - pour out, make flow
    • Proto-IE tekʷ/tek- - to run, flow
  • *bar- - to go, walk (away)
    • Proto-IE per - go over, carry over, bring
  • *bat- - to sink; to fit into, get into
    • Proto-IE pet - open [arms] wide; to fall, to fly
  • *saĺ- - to untie, loosen, solve (seç-..)
    • Proto-IE slab- - loose, weak
  • *em- - to suck
    • Proto-Uralic *imi- - suck
  • *tep- - to step on, trample
    • Proto-IE *trep- - to trample, tread
  • *türt- - to push
    • Proto-IE *trewd- - to press, push
      • Latin trūd-ō- - push
      • English threat
      • Russian trud - labour
  • *qur- - to build, erect, establish
    • Proto-IE *kʷer- - to make (Baltic: erect, build)
  • *ögrän- - to learn
    • Proto-IE *gʷʰren- - "phrenic"; soul, mind
  • *uq- - understand, hear, (*oqu- - read, study)
    • Proto-IE *ok- - understand, see
      • (only attested in Greek and Germanic)
    • Proto-IE *okʷ- - see, eye
    • Mongolic *uka - understand, think
  • *ös- - grow
    • Proto-IE *u̯eis- - sprout, grow
    • Proto-IE *u̯og-s- - magnify, increase
      • Proto-Germanic *vaks- - grow
      • Tokharian A *oks- - grow
  • *bil- - know
    • Proto-IE *weid- - know
      • Germanic *wit
    • Mongolic *med- - know
    • Proto-IE *men- - mind
      • Persian menidan - think, menišn - thought
    • Tocharian päl- (A), pal- (B) - to think
  • *kerek - needed
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰer(e)- - desire
  • *(b)ol- be
    • Proto-IE ?
    • Mongolic *bü-
    • Proto-Uralic *wole-
  • *är - be
    • Proto-IE *es- - be
  • *tanı- - be acquainted with / know (but Kg. taanı)
    • Proto-IE ǵnō-/ǵenə- - know
      • Iranian ??
        • New Persian dāni-
        • New Persian šinā- ???
  • *tut- (?*tukta-) - pull, subdue
    • Proto-IE *deuk- - drag
      • English tug
      • Latin duc- - lead
      • Latin "t-stem" ductus - duct
  •  ?ayda- - drive [animals]
    • Proto-IE * (*heǵ-) - lead, drive cattle
  • udı- - sleep (connected with od- - wake??)
    • Proto-IE sneud(h)- - drowsy / to drowse
  • od- - wake
    • Proto-IE bheudh- - be awake / aware
    • Mongolic (h)uda- - conceive, design, instigate (Starostin)
  • aç- - open
    • Japanese *áká- - open
      • Modern Tokyo àke- - open
  • *ked- wear
    • Old Japanese kî- - wear
      • Modern Tokyo ki- - wear
    • Proto-IE *kadh- - protect, cover
      • Old English heden - dress
      • Icelandic heðinn - skirt
  • *ur- / *vur- (cf. Chuvash, Turkish) / *hur- (cf. Halaj) hit
    • Modern Tokyo bu(t?)- - hit
    • Modern Tokyo fùru- - shake
  • *sez- feel
    • Proto-IE sent- - take a direction; feel
      • Latin sens-us - sense, mind
      • OCS sęštь - smart
    • Mongolic *sere-/*seri- notice
  • *sıç- defecate
    • Proto-IE k̂ekʷ-
  • *kel- come
    • Tokharian (A) kälk- - walk
    • Tokharian (B) kalāk- - follow
    • Tokharian (A) käl- - lead, bring
  • *yap- close
    • PIE *yew-o-?
      • Proto-Tokharian *yäpa-
      • Tokharian (AB) yām, (A) ya-/ypa- - make
  • *āş- cross, exceed
    • Tokharian (A) āsuk - over
  • *yıq- (klj,kjh: yuq) - defeat, overthrow
    • Tokharian (A) yuk- - conquer, overcome
  • *qarba- - grab
    • Proto-IE *gʰrebʰ- - grab, seize, snatch
      • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬡 garəβ - seize
  • *aq- (chv: yux-) - flow, run (liquid)
    • Proto-IE (only Germanic, Italic?) *h₂ekʷeh₂ - water (specifically, flowing), river
  • *böl- - divide
    • Semitic ?*PLG - divide
  • *toğ- - give birth
    • Proto-IE *teke- - give birth
  • *yet- (caus *yetkir-~yetkiz-) - reach
    • Mongolic *jidkü - strive
    • Proto-Germanic *ɣetanã - attain, acquire
  • *kid- - get dressed
    • Proto-IE *gleyt- - cloth
      • Germanic *klaiþą - cloth
  • *teş- - make holes
    • Aramaic, Hebrew דגש (DGŠ) - pierce, stab
  • *yan(+dir) - to burn v.i. (v.t.)
    • Proto-Na-Dené *q’aˑn burn, ignite
    • Ket -qan cook, burn, boil
  • yıl- - warm
    • Proto-IE *ḱel- - warm/cool
    • Proto-IE *gel- - cold
    • Proto-IE *gʷʰer- - hot, warm
  • *yibi- - become wet, soak
    • Proto-IE *nebʰ - damp, water, clouds
  • *yal- - to burn, *yalın - flame, *yaş- (yalʲ-) - to blaze, *yalqı- - to glitter
    • Proto-IE *dʰel- - light
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰel- - to shine
  • *qat-/qatı- - harden (qatığ - hard)
    • Mongolic *qata- - harden (qatağu - hard)
    • Japanese kata - hard
  • *sāç- - scatter, disperse (transitive)
    • Tokharian (B) käsk- - scatter
    • Tokharian (B) täṃts- scatter, disperse
  • *tēr(j?)- - gather, collect
    • Proto-IE *dʰer- - support, hold
      • Indo-Iranian *dʰárati ← *dʰer-e-ti
        • Sogdian dʼr
        • Ossetian дарын
  • *yeŋ- - win
    • Proto-IE *weyk- - contain, envelop; yield; overcome → *wi-né-k-ti ~ *wi-n-k-énti
      • Latin vinc- - win, conquer
    • Proto-IE *wenh₁- - love; strive; wish; desire
      • Proto-Germanic *winnaną - labour, toil; to win, gain; to fight, strive
        • English win
  • **kælæ- - speak
    • Mongolic *kele-
    • Greek καλέω - call, summon
    • Proto-Uralic *käle - tongue

Body parts

  • PrTk. *bāş - head
    • Ainu pake - head
    • Proto-IE *gʰebʰōl - ?
      • Tokharian A śpāl - head
      • Tokharian B śpālu - head
      • OHG gebal - ?
      • Greek κɛɸɑlή - ?
    • Lak baḳ
    • Khotanese Saka māstai - head
  • Pre-PrTk. *padaq - foot
    • Proto-IE *bʰad (*bʰ—ħd) - boot
  • PrTk. *būt - foot, thigh
    • Proto-IE **pṓds - foot
  • *el(ig) - hand, (later alaqan - palm of hand ← Mongolic), *hāja - palm, al- - take
    • Proto-IE *h₁el- - elbow, forearm
      • English ell, elbow
    • Mongolic *halaqa(n)/*hali'a(n) ?
    • Proto-IE *plh₂m-, - palm
      • Old English folm
      • Latin palma
      • Old Irish lām
      • Ancient Greek παλάμη ‎(palámē)
  • qol - hand, arm
    • Germanic hand, hold
  • *jajŋaq (jāq) - jaw
    • Proto-IE *ǵebʰ- - jaw, mouth
      • English jowl
    • English jaw
  • qulğaq - ear
    • Proto-IE *ḱlew- - to hear
      • Tokharian B klautso ?, kl̄aw - to hear
      • Celtic *klew-o
    • Proto-IE *gʰous- - hear
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian *gʰauš-
      • Sanskrit घोष gʰoṣa
      • Old Persian gauša- - ear
        • Modern Persian guš - ear
  • meŋä / miy / mee (*bejŋi?) - brain
    • Russian мозг brain
    • Hebrew MWX brain
      • Yiddish moyex brain
    • Sogdian m'g
    • Proto-IE *men- mind
    • Proto-IE *moz-g- brain
      • Old Indic majján
  • *burut - mustache
    • Proto-IE *bʰardʰ- - beard
  • bel - waist
    • Latin balteus belt (of Etruscan origin?)
  • *bod - body (Kg boy - height, length)
    • OE bodig - trunk, chest (of a man or animal), originally "cask;"
      • English - body
    • OHG botah
  • *yāş - tear (from eye)
    • Proto-IE *dáḱru- - tear
      • Wakhi yashk - tear [1]
    • Mongolic nilmus - tear
    • (Mongolic dusal ? - drop < dus- - drip (v.i.))
  • *yürek - heart (but Chuvash çəre)
    • Proto-IE *ḱḗr - heart
      • Proto-Tocharian *käryā- - heart
  • *qar-ın - belly
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰer- - bowels
  • *tīş - tooth
    • Proto-IE *ǵeus- - to taste
    • Proto-IE *h₁dónts - tooth
  • *bʲağır - liver
    • Proto-IE *yeh₁kwr̥-/Hyékʷr̥ - liver (maybe *by- or *py-?)
      • Latin iecur
      • Indic
        • Old Indic yakŕ̩t
      • Iranian
        • Khotanese Saka gyagarrä
        • Ossetian igær
    • Non-IE Northern European *mok-on- - stomach, bag (see entry here)
  • *tǖk - hair
    • Proto-IE *twék- - skin
  • *bōyn - neck
    • Proto-IE *mon- - neck
  • *beŋ - mole
    • Proto-IE *meng- - pretty, beautiful
  • *ağıŕ - mouth
    • Proto-IE *ōus - mouth
    • Persian āvāz - voice
  • çiray (Mongolic) - ~visage
    • Mongolic ?*čirai - ~visage
    • Persian čehra - face
  • qaraq/qarek - pupil of the eye / eyeball
    • Proto-IE
      • Greek κόρη/κούρη/κώρα "the pupil of the eye, eyeball"
  •  ?*saç - hair
    • Proto-IE *dēḱwā - ?
      • Tokharian A śāku - hair
  • *qıl ~ ?*qılq (chv. χələχ) - hair
    • Mongolic *kilga-su-n - horse's hair
      • Classical Mongolian kilgasu(n) - horse's hair
      • Khalkha хялгас - horse's hair
    • Finnish kalki - hair
  • ~*köks (→köküräk~köküz) - chest
    • Celtic kīkā - breast
    • Japanese kokóɾo - heart
  • *omuz - shoulder (and Kazakh omırtqa ‘spine’)
    • distribution in Turkic: Middle Turkic, Chuvash, Oğuz, Uzbek, some Western Qıpçaq (Balkar, Karaim, Kumyk)
    • Mongolic (WM)omuruɣu(n)/(MM)omori'ut - collar bone
    • Mongolic (khk) mör - shoulder
    • Evenki mïre(?)
    • Proto-IE *H₁ōmso-
      • Old Indian áṁsa-
      • Old Greek ō̂m(s)o-s
      • Germanic áms-a-
      • Latin umerus
      • Tocharian es (A) (*omso-), āntse (B) (*omeso-)
  • *qān (but chv jun)
    • Sogdian xurn-i blood-nom
    • 'Proto-IE *ǵenh₁- to produce, to beget, to give birth
      • Germanic *kunją - kin/clan
  • *köz - eye
    • Proto-IE *h₃ókʷs
      • Lithuanian akìs
      • Sanskrit ákṣi
  • *ald- - front
    • PIE *h₂ént-o- "in front"
  • *arqa - back
    • PIE *pṛh₂wo- "anterior"
      • Tocharian pärwa-t (A), parwe (B) ← *pä́rwë

Numerals

  • bīr - one
    • English first, fore
    • Romance prim-
    • Proto-IE prHuo-, pro-wo-, perǝ, pro first, fore, ahead
    • Tokharian parwe
  • ä(k)ki, i(k)ki - two
    • Proto-IE sekʷ follow
      • English second
    • Finnish kaksi (?)
    • Proto-IE du̯ō+ko
      • Old Indic dviká- twofold
      • Armenian erkic̣s twice
      • Albanian dyshi two
      • Old Saxon twisk twofold
  • tȫrt - four
    • Proto-IE kwetwores
      • Tokharian çtwar, çtwer
  • bēş - five
    • Proto-IE penkwe
      • Tokharian pañä, piç, piś
  • jet(t)i - seven
    • Proto-IE septom
      • Tokharian s.pät, sukt
  • sek(k)iz - eight
    • Proto-IE *h₁oḱtṓw
      • Tokharian okät, okt
  • yigirmä/ɟigirma - twenty
    • Proto-IE *dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti -> *u̯i-ḱmt-ī
      • Proto-Tokharian *w'īkän (-> wiki, ikäṃ)
      • Proto-Celtic *wikantī
      • Latin vīgintī
        • Aromanian yinghits
    • Proto-IE *deḱ- ten
      • Proto-Germanic *teguz group of ten
        • Old Norse tigr group of ten
  • tümän - ten thousand
    • Tokharian tmām; tumane, tmāne; tumám
  • -(i)nçi - -th
    • Proto-IE -nte? -th
  • *san - number, *som; sōm(?) - number; whole, piece (?)
    • Tokharian B ṣaṃṣäl - number < ṣäṃṣ- - to count

People

  • qağan - ruler, khan
    • Hebrew kohen
  • qı̄z - girl, daughter (Chuvash xĕr)
    • English kid, kith
    • Proto-IE *ḱer- grow
      • Greek κόρη/κούρη/κώρα "girl, virgin"
    • PIE *swésōr "siter"
      • Khotanese hvar
      • Sogdian xwār
      • Pashto xor
  • er - male, man (?*her (Halaj hir-) ← ?*per)
    • Proto-IE *er - bull, male
    • Germanic *ærgi (?) - unmasculine?
    • Proto-IE *wiro- - man; warrior
      • Scythian oior - man (Herodotus)
    • Proto-IE *ario-? - master, lord
    • Burushaski hir - man
  • ata - father/grandfather; aqa/äke - older male relative
    • Proto-IE *ph₂tḗr
      • Tokharian pácar, pacer
    • Proto-IE *hatta
  • ayal - woman, wife
    • Tokharian ckácar, tkácer daughter
    • Arabic ʾahl wife (probably just a loan in some Turkic languages from this)
  • *ēş (*ēlʲ?) - friend
    • Proto-IE *bʰili/*bʰilo - harmonious, friendly
    • Tungusic *pali - friendship, relationship
  • *orda - horde
    • Proto-IE *ḱerdʰā - troop, line
  • *edi (**hedi?) - master, owner
    • Proto-IE *poti-s - master, owner, host
      • Old Indic páti- - master
      • Avestan paiti- - master
    • Mongolic eje-n - master, owner
  • *küni - co-wife
    • Proto-IE *gʷ(e)na- - wife, woman
  • *yigit(?) - young, young man
    • Proto-IE *h₂yuh₁n̥ḱós/*h₂yowh₁en-/h₂yuh₁en- - young
      • Germanic *jungaz < **juwung-+az - young
        • West Germanic *juwunþ- < *juwung-+θ - youth
          • Old English 'ˈjeoɣʊθ - youth / young person
          • Old Saxon juguth
  • *tegin(?) - tegin
    • Germranic *þegnaz - man, warrior
      • Old English þæġn, þeġen, þegn - servant/retainer, "one in service to the king or other superior"
      • Dutch degen - hero, warrior, soldier
  • *āğıl - village/settlement (~community of families)
    • Semitic ʔHL - ?
      • Arabic ʾahl - kin (~community around a family)
      • Hebrew ʾāhál - pitch a tent
      • Hebrew ʾóhel - tent
      • Akkadian âlu - settlement
    • Mongolic *ayil - village/settlement (~community of families)
    • (aylan- - spin i.v.)
    • English hall?
  • *bāla - child
    • Sanskrit bāla - boy, child

Grammatical

  • qāń - (qaysı - which, qayda - where, qana - where (to), (kim - who,) etc)
    • Proto-IE *kʷo
    • Proto-Uralic *ke- who
  • qaçan - when
    • Proto-IE
      • Panjabi kad, kadoñ
      • Sindhi kaɖahn
  • -kan - (deverbal adverbial / adjectival / nominal suffix)
    • Proto-IE *kʷo
      • kwand / when / etc.
  • orta - middle, centre
    • Tokharian orto - up
  • oqşa- - like, similar
    • Tokharian oki - like
  • oq - emphatic particle
    • Tokarian ats - exactly
  • -mA - verbal negative morpheme
    • Tokharian - not
    • Greek má, mé - not
    • Sanskrit - don't
    • Mandarin mei2, bu1 - NEG
    • Cantonese mo5, ng4 - NEG
  • beri - before, since
    • IE *prih₁-mó- / *prō-to- foremost
      • Russian p(e)red - before, in front of
      • English fore
      • Latin pre-
  • mI - yes/no question particle
    • Sanskrit - yes/no question particle
  • ööz - self, own (reflexive pronoun)
    • Ancient Greek heós < PIE swa-

Other

  • yaq-şı - good ← yaq- to be pleasing (?)
    • Proto-IE meH-, wEsu- (?)
  • āq - white
    • Proto-IE *h₂erǵ- - white, shine
    • Tokharian árki , árkwi- white
  • qut - fortune
    • Germanic en: good
  • ant+ar - turn over
    • Proto-IE ant front
    • Tokharian ánt through, across, ánt, ánte forehead
    • Germanic anðar other
  • tın+ıç - peace
    • Tokharian tunk love
  • süːt - milk
    • Proto-IE *sweh₂d-u- sweet
    • Proto-IE *ksweid- milk
  • ülkän - big
    • Tokharian walke long
  • *bek - firm, stable
  • bedük(?) - high
    • IE *mag- large, many
      • Tokharian makí, (A?) māk much
    • Mongolian hike - big
  • *bek - fast (as in solid/stable)
  • man - great
    • Proto-IE *meǵ- - great?
      • Phrygian meka great
      • Greek megas great
      • Latin magna ?
    • Proto-IE *magʰ- - able/power
    • Korean manhi - a lot
    • Korean pʰək - very
    • Korean pak - vigorously
    • Mongolian maš - very
  • büt/bük? - all, entire
    • Tokharian (A) puk - all, every, whole
  • töbe - hill, peak, crest
    • English top
  • māl - time, moment (Perso-Arabic borrowing?)
    • Germanic *mēl time of meal
      • en: meal
      • yi: mol time
      • de: Mahl, Mal
  • ters - reverse, backwards
    • Proto-IE *ter- - cross over
    • Proto-IE *ter / *tero - over/through
  • kers - reverse, backwards
    • Proto-IE *ǵers - to turn, to bend
  • *yal-aŋ/-ŋuz - naked/lone
    • Proto-IE *gal- - naked
  • *yalğan - falsehood
    • Tokharian *ywolo - bad, ugly
      • Khotanese yola - falsehood
  • *yar-ıq/-qın//-ıl - light, bright//explode
    • Proto-IE gʷʰer- - warm
  • Kg. ubada- - promise (Perso-Arabic borrowing?)
    • Proto-IE *wadʰ- - promise
  • alıs - far, distant
    • Proto-IE *h₂el-yó- - beyond; other
    • Mongolic alisun - far
  • äli - still (Iranian borrowing?)
    • Proto-IE *h₂el-yó- - beyond; other
  • *yeŋgü-l - lightweight
    • Proto-IE *lengʷʰ- - lightweight
  • *ōçuz - thin/light/easy/worthless
    • Proto-IE *ténh₂us - thin
  • *qula - light yellow, brown
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰel- - to shine (>yellow)
  • *boŕ / *bōŕ - grey
    • Proto-IE *mor(u) - to blacken, dark spot
  • *buŕ / *boŕ - to spoil, be damaged, destroyed
    • Proto-IE *merk - to rot
  • teŋ - equal
    • Proto-IE *tengʰ/tenk/tens - to extend, stretch, span
    • Proto-IE tenk - contract
    • Middle Chinese tʌi/təŋ - equate, be equal; and similar; sort, kind
  • yāĺıl - green ← yāĺ young
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰel - shine; green
    • Proto-IE *dʰāl- blossom, be green
    • Proto-IE *iēlo- (only Celtic and Balto-Slavic) unripe, raw
    • Mongolian zalʊː young
  • *ağır - heavy
    • Proto-IE *gʷer - heavy
      • Sogdian ɣr’n = ɣərān - heavy
  • *bayram - festival (*badram?) (Perso-Arabic borrowing?)
    • Proto-IE *bʰăd- - good
  • *tȫr - seat of honour in home (across from door)
    • Proto-IE dʰwer - door
    • Japanese to (<two?) - door
  • *qır - edge
    • Proto-IE gʰer / gʰrØ- - stick out
    • Proto-IE (s)ker- - turn, bend
    • Proto-IE (s)ker- - cut
  • *sāɣ - thought; *sāq- - think
    • Proto-IE
      • Greek sopʰo-
      • Latin sabe-
      • Hittite sak/sek
  • *siŋ- - soak up
    • Proto-IE *sengʷ- - sink
  • *bata? - blessing
    • Proto-IE bʰād - good
  • *eşik - door
    • Hittite aska- - door
  • *burç (??) - corner
    • Proto-IE mereǵ/mərǵ- - border
      • Latin margō
      • Persian marz
      • OIr mruig
      • Germanic marka
    • IE
      • Germanic brink
  • tığız - tight, snug (< tıq- cram?)
    • IE ?
      • Germanic tight?, taut?
      • Slavic tug-?
  • *sarığ < *śarğa/sirga? - yellow
    • Mongolic *sira
    • Japanese siro - white
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰel- - to shine (>yellow)
      • Iranian ?*zari - golden
        • Persian zard - yellow
        •  ? Middle Persian zargōn
          • Aramaic zrgwn (zargūn?) - golden
    • Mandan síre - yellow
    • Ossetian syrx - red
    • Proto-Slavic śěrŭ - grey ← *xoiro ← PIE *ḱHoy-ro
  • qara - black
    • Mongolic *qara
    • Japanese kuro
    • Proto-IE *ker-/ḱer- - dark colour
      • Slavic *čer-
  • sekin - slow, quiet (← Arabic?)
    • PIE *sēk- - quiet, lazy
  • yıraq - far
    • Iranian ?
      • Avestan dûra
      • Shughni, Sarikoli ðar
      • Wakhi ðir
      • Persian dur
  • sağ - healthy
    • Mongolic sayin - healthy
    • Proto-IE sāno-s - healthy (Italic, maybe Albanian)
    • Proto Tokharian śāw- - live (←PIE *gwyeh3-w-e/o-)
      • Tocharian (A) śo-, (B) śāw- ~ śāy-
  • iqma - method
    • Tokharian (A) wkäṃ - manner, type
  • qıl- - do, make
    • Tokharian (B) käl - endure
  • sekin - quiet, without force
    • Proto-IE sēk - quiet, lazy
  • kǖç - strength, power
    • Mongolic küči(n) - strength, power
    • Proto-IE *ǵheus- - spray, gush
      • Tokharian B kus - gush
    • Proto-IE *ǵéwstus - taste, vigour (←*ǵustéw-)
  • tār - narrow
    • Proto-IE *ten- - stretch, draw, *tenw- - pull
      • Latin tendere/tendō/tensus
        • English tense
      • Ancient Greek τείνω ‎(teínō)
      • Sanskrit तनोति ‎(tanóti) - stretch, spread
      • Germanic *þanjaną
        • Old English þennan - stretch, spread
  • ērte - early, morning, next day
    • Japanese asita - tomorrow
      • Ura Amami assja - tomorrow
      • Hateruma Yaeyama acca - tomorrow
  • *bi/bän- - I/me
    • Ura Amami wan
    • Hateruma Yaeyama ba
  • *uzun, *uzaq (Mongolic *urta) - long
    • IE (the following words may or may not be related to one another)
      • Tokharian A aryu - long(-lasting)
      • Tokharian B orotstse/wrotstse - great, big, large
      • Luvian ura- - great
  • qoyı- - be viscous/thick, qoyığ - viscous/thick
    • Japanese ko-i - viscous/thick
  • yarıq, yaruğ, yarqın - light, bright
    • Russian jark-ij - bright
    • Proto-Semitic *waraq green
      • Aramaic yārōq yellow-green
      • Hebrew yaroq green
    • Proto-IE *ǵʰel- - to shine (>yellow)
      • Iranian ?*zari - golden
        •  ? Middle Persian zargōn
          • Aramaic zrgwn (zargūn?) - golden

Incorporate or not?

  • Tokharian sále, sályi - salt (IE *sal- - grey, dirty; salt)
    • Turkic tuz - salt
  • Tokharian salu, sol - whole (IE *salw- - whole, healthy)
    • Turkic tol- - full/fill
  • Tokharian särk, sark - an illness
    • Turkic ogr- - to hurt
  • IE *sú- - to be born
    • Turkic tuğ- - to be born
  • Tokharian káryap - harm
    • Turkic qab(a)- - to harm
  • IE weid- - to know
    • Turkic bil- (possible, due to sonority stuff)
  • IE (En will, Lt vol-, etc)
    • Turkic bil-
  • Germanic *sūmian- - to miss
    • Turkic *seb- - to love
  • IE *su̯ei- - to make a noise
    • Turkic *seb-le - to speak
  • IE *h₂eiǵ- - goat
    • Turkic eçki - goat
  • IE *pel- - grey
    • Turkic boz - ~grey
  • IE *ḱas- - grey
    • Turkic çal- grey-haired
  • IE *tark- - to twist
    • Turkic tart- - to pull
  • IE *ǵʰés-ro- - hand
    • Turkic qol - hand
  • IE *kaput- - head
    • Turkic baş - head
  • IE *knid- - louse
    • Turkic kene - flea?
  • IE *plōu- - flea (Pashto vrāž.a)
    • Turkic *bürče / *bürge - flea

Similarities to Russian =

  • murç / burç - pepper
    • pérec - pepper
  • muz / buz - ice
    • moróz - frost (Slavic ?*morz-)
  • yarıq, yaruğ, yarqın - light, bright
    • jark-ij - bright
  • qara
    • čer- (Slavic ?*kr̩-)
  • beri - before, since
    • pered - before, in front of
  • boran - storm
    • burʲa - storm
    • purga, buran
  • seb+kil (?) - freckle(s)
    • sypʲ - rash
  • sep- - scatter/sow
    • ras-syp- scatter
  • sıdır- - to peel, strip, tear off
    • sdir-atʲ - "
  • taşı- - to overflow
    • taši-tʲ - to overflow
  • taşı- - to haul
    • toska-tʲ - to haul
  • bosoğo (Mongolic) - doorframe
    • porog
  • Lak stuff
    • barzu - eagle (bürküt)
    • čul - field, steppe (Mg. tala)
    • barc̣ (pl. burc̣i-l) - wolf (börü)
    • barḫ - back (arqa)

Not to incorporate

  •  ?lağ - meadow
    • Balto-Slavic *plãka (?) pl:łąka, ru:lug

Notes

  • Tokharian (B?) /ä/ was probably [ɨ]
  • When two Tokharian words given, first is Tokharian A, second is Tokharian B
  • Tokharian /ç/ is probably [ɕ]
  • Tokharian /ts/ and /c/ are different?


PIE-to-Turkic correspondences

This is just for the sake of organising stuff, so I can see better what might be going on, if anything even is..

Labial stops

*p
beginning end other
back vowel ph₂tḗr → ata
front vowel prih₁- → beri
prih₁- → bir
pénkʷe → bēş
pekʷ → biş-
pel → boz
pṓds → but

*b
beginning end other
back vowel
front vowel

*bʰ
beginning end other
back vowel er- → ber gʰa- → qap-
front vowel ardʰ → burut
◌ħd → ad-aq
ili → ēlʲ

Coronal stops

*t
beginning end other
back vowel
front vowel twék- → tǖk
tag- → teg-
tekʷ → tök

*d
beginning end other
back vowel dáḱru- → yāş
dṓm → tām
pṓds → but bʰ◌ħd → pad-aq
front vowel digʰo → teke

*dʰ
beginning end other
back vowel égʷʰ- → yaq-
wer → tȫr
ǵʰer- → yurt
bʰar → burut
front vowel

Palatal stops

*ḱ
beginning end other
back vowel órw-eh₂ → qarğa
lew- → qul-aq
ru- → yaş
front vowel el- → yıl
ḗr → yür-äk
es- → kes-

beginning end other
back vowel h₂erǵ- → āq
front vowel ǵers → kers

*ǵʰ
beginning end other
back vowel ǵʰáns- → qāz
ǵʰer- → qar-ın
ǵʰel- → qula
front vowel ǵʰel- → altın
ǵʰer-dʰ → yur-t

Velar stops

*k
beginning end other
back vowel ker- → qara
front vowel ked- → ket- twék- → tǖk uks → ökiz

*g
beginning end other
back vowel gerh₂- → qarı-
front vowel gal- → yal- tag- → teg-

*gʰ
beginning end other
back vowel abʰ- → qap-
front vowel dio → teke

Labialised stops

*kʷ
beginning end other
back vowel o → qāń
er- → qur-
se- → saqı
front vowel pe → biş-
péne → bēş
te → tök-

*gʷ
beginning end other
back vowel er → ağır
front vowel

*gʷʰ
beginning end other
back vowel dʰégʷʰ → yaq
front vowel gʷʰer- → yar- h₁egʷʰ → iç- lengʷʰ-◌ → yengü-l

Other

*n
_C]σ
back vowel ǵʰáns- → qā∅s → qā∅z
front vowel nkʷe → bē∅ş
front vowel h₁dónts → tī∅ş
*w
beginning end other
back vowel ḱórw-eh₂ → qarğa ḱlew- → qulaq
front vowel
*m
beginning end other
back vowel
front vowel

Sources