Kyrgyz phrasal verbs

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V + V

There are many cases in Kyrgyz where two (or more) verbs occur in a sequence. Usually this is in combinations where there's a sequence of events (each one represented by a verb) or additional aspectual or mood information being added to an event (where a second verb is an auxiliary conveying that aspectual/mood information).

V + V as a single verb

There are, however, a few V + V combinations which can be interpreted (and certainly translated) as if they are behaving as a single verb.

  • алып кел- < ал- ‘take’ + кел- ‘come’ = "bring"
  • алып бар- < ал- ‘take’ + бар- ‘go (+dest)’ = "take / bring (over)"
  • алып кет- < ал- ‘take’ + кет- ‘leave’ = "take away"
  • алып жүр- < ал- ‘take’ + жүр- ‘go’ = "carry (in some contexts)"

Some of these have abbreviated forms in speech:¹

  • апкел- = алып кел-
  • апар- = алып бар-

¹ In Kazakh, the forms әкел-, апар-, and әкет- are the standard written forms of these words, and only in very high registers are they written as two separate verbs.

There are some other verbs

  • басып чыгар- < бас- ‘press’ + чыгар- ‘make come out’ = "print (out)"

V1 + V2 with V2's valency

In most instances of V1 + V2 (+ V3, etc.), the main verb is V1 and the valency of the compound verb is that of V1. However, in some [rather rare] scenarios, V2 is treated as the main verb and the valency of the compound verb is that of V2.

  • Сени барып алып келем
  • Тамакты жыргап жеп жатат

FIXME: example

N + V

N with possessive morphology

N is 3rd person subject

  • ич+[pos] айлан- < ич ‘inside’ + айлан- ‘spin (v.i.)’ = "have an upset stomach"
  • көңүл+[pos] түш- < көңүл ‘feelings’ + түш- ‘fall’ = "be/get down"
  • көңүл+[pos] сууп кал- < көңүл ‘feelings’ + суу- ‘get cold’ + кал- ‘[perfect aspect]’ = "stop liking [a person]" (+ABL)

N is object

  • баш+[pos]+[acc] айлант- < баш ‘head’ + айлант- ‘spin (v.t.)’ = "make dizzy / confuse"
  • жүрөк+[pos]+[acc] айлант- < жүрөк ‘heart’ + айлан- ‘spin (v.t.)’ = "make nauseous / gross out"
  • көңүл+[pos]+[acc] түшүр- < көңүл ‘feelings’ + түшүр- ‘make fall’ = "get [someone] down"

N is in other cases

  • моюн+[pos]+[dat] ал- < моюн ‘neck’ + ал- ‘take’ = "accept/recognise/admit" (+ACC)

N without possessive morphology

"N" is limited in use to compound

  • кабыл ал- < кабыл ‘???’ + ал- ‘take’ = "accept" (+ACC)
  • жөнгө сал- < жөн ‘~straight?’ + сал- ‘set / put in’ = "repair" (+ACC)

N is indefinite object

  • кол кой- < кол ‘hand’ + кой- ‘put’ = "sign" (+DAT)
  • кол сал- < кол ‘hand’ + сал- ‘set / put in’ = "attack" (+DAT)
  • сакал ал- < сакал ‘beard’ + ал- ‘take’ = "shave"
  • баш тарт- < баш ‘head’ + тарт- ‘pull’ = "withdraw (from)" (+ABL)

N is in other cases

  • турмушка чык- < турмуш ‘lifestyle’ + чык- ‘leave’ = "get married (for women)" (+DAT)
  • камакка ал- < камак ‘captivity’ + ал- ‘take’ = "arrest" (+ACC)
  • жумушка ал- < жумуш ‘work’ + ал- ‘take’ = "hire" (+ACC)