Turkic sound changes

From FireSpeakerWiki

The orthography used to represent Turkic languages on this page is a phonemic system based on Turkish orthography.
This is done to avoid focusing on the phonetic differences between different languages used.
The IPA is used when describing the phonetics of Turkic languages.

Also see Turkic Sonority Constraints#Words that changed due to sonority

proto-Altaic to pre-proto-Turkic:

  • ʒ, dʒ, d?, n? > j / #_ (?)

pre-proto-Turkic to proto-Turkic:

  • no n, m, ŋ, l, r, z, š / #_
  • p > ɸ > h / #_
  • lenis/fortis merger
    • g > k
    • d > t
  • sʲ → š / #_
  • rʲ → z
  • nʲ → nʲ
  • j, dʲ, nʲ → j / #_

proto-Turkic to Sakha

The vowel stuff below is pulled from Saha Türk dili. But also see this article by Greg Anderson, which seems pretty thorough, and accurate for the most part. Vowels:

  • aa > aa (qaan > xaan "khan", aaç > aas "open", taaş > taas "stone")
  • ėė / ee > ie (kėėçe > kiehe "night", keep > kiep "kip, şekil", bėėr- > bier- "give", yėė- > sie- "eat", yėėl > siel "rüzgâr")
  • ıı > ıı (ııð > ııt, tııð > tııt- kıız > qııs, qıın > kıın)
  • ii > ii (biir > biir, tiiş > tiis, kiir- > kiir- "enter", iil > iil)
  • oo > uo (bool- > buol- "be", yool > suol "road", yook > suox "not", oon > uon "ten")
  • öö > üö (söök- > üöx- "swear", öögren- > üören- "learn", köök > küök "sky", töört > tüört "four")
  • uu > uu (suun- > uun- "sunmak", uur- > uur- "vurmak", buuz > buus (muus) "ice", suub > uu "water")
  • üü > üü (küüð- > küüt- "wait", süüt > üüt "milk", küüç > küüs "strength", yüüz > süüs "100")
  • ağ / ab > ıa (tağ > tıa "forest", yağ > sıa, ağrığ > ıarıı "ağrı", yaðağ > satı "yayan")
  • ağı > ıa (bağır > bıar, sağız > ıas)
  • ağu > uo (ağuz > uosax "fresh milk", ağız > uos "lip")
  • oğ / ob > uo (toburğaq > tuorax "toprak", oğul > uol "son", boğuz > buos "boğaz")
  • uğ / ub > uu (uruğ > uruu "nesil, soy", sub > uu "water")
  • iğ > ıı [> ii] (sarığ > arıı "fat", ağrığ > ıarıı, qıðığ > kıtıı "kıyı", kığ > kıı > kii "pislik, gübre")
  • eg > ie (tegir- > tier "çevirmek, döndürmek", yegen > sien "yeğen")
  • eg > ii / iy (beg > bii, teg- > tiy- "touch")
  • ög > öö (tögen > tüön "döven")
  • üg > üü (yügen > ügün > üün "dizgin", tüg > tüü (tüy), külüg > külüü "famous")
  • ig > ii (elig > ilii "hand", tirilig > tirlig > tillii "living", sigik (<sigdik)> iik "sidik")

Consonant stuff:

  • j > s (jeti > sette "seven", jool > suol "road")
  • intervocalic s > t (-si, -sı, -su, sü > -te, -ta, -to, -tö (3rd sg. possessive suffix))
  • word-initial s > Ø (saal > aal "raft", sen > en "you")
  • non-intervocalic z, ʃ > s (kıız > qııs "girl", kaaʃ > xaas "eyebrow")
  • intervocalic z, ʃ > h (kiʃi > kihi "person", uzun > uhun "long")
  • intervocalic d > t (adak > ataq "foot", "kadıŋ > xatıŋ "birch")

Old Turkic phonology

Old Turkic has nine vowel qualities—a /a/, e /æ/, ė /e/, i /i/, ï /ɯ/, o /o/, ö /ø/, u /u/, ü /y/—distinct only in the first syllable of a word, collapsed into four classes elsewhere—a, e, ï, i.

The consonantal system distinguishes between unvoiced, voiced (with fricative variants) and nasal:

labial: p, v (β), m;
dental: t, d (δ), n;
palatal: č, y, ń;
velar: k (q, χ), g (γ), ŋ;
sibilant: s, š, z;
liquid: r, l.

General Persian Phonology

This should be here too, since early Kypchak saw the beginnings of heavy borrowings

proto-Turkic to proto-Kypchak:

Shared with Old Turkic

  • V̆ > ∅
  • h > ∅ / #_

Not shared with Old Turkic

  • nʲ > j
  • b > m / #_…n
  • G > K / _#
  • d > t / _#
  • d > t / #_ (kind of, since most later borrowings did this, but later ones from Mongolic, esp. in Kazakh; proto-Tc didn't have #d)
  • V > [-rd] / []σ_
  • b > v / V _
  • v > w
  • gm > mg
  • rg > rg
  • rd > dr (sometimes? just Kazakh?)
  • Vg/b/d changes:
    • aG > aw
    • ɯG > ɯw
    • iG > iw
    • oG > uw
    • eb/æb > ew
    • ub > uw
    • øg > øj
    • ød > øj
    • (d > ð > j / V_)
    • (g > w / V _)
  • ew > (øj >) yj
  • æ > e (more æ added by Persian loans)
  • s > tʃ / _Vtʃ
  • a > æ / _ X V[-back]
  • f > w / V _
  • f > p
  • ŋ > g / σ[_

s_ç → ç_ç

  • seç- → çeç-
  • sıç- → çıç-
  • saç → çaç

proto-Kypchak to Kazakh:

Shared with Nogay and Karakalpak, known, inclusive

  • ʃ > s
  • tʃ > ʃ
  • j > dʒ / #_ (not Qara Nogay)
  • dʒ > ʒ (not Qara Nogay or Central Nogay)
  • ɯw > ɯ / _# (not when morpheme boundary between; i.e., never with -(u)w)

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Kazakh phonology

Kazakh consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Uvular
Glottal
Plosives p b t d k ɡ
Nasals m n ŋ
Fricatives (f) (v) s z ʃ ʒ (ɕ) (x) h
Affricates (ʨ)
Tap ɾ
Approximant w j
Lateral
approximants
l
Kazakh vowel phonemes
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High ɪ ʉ ə ʊ
Diphthongal i̯ɪ u̯ʉ u̯ʊ
Low æ ɑ

proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz:

  • jI > I (sometimes?)
  • b > m / V_V (sometimes?)
  • resulting in long vowels
    • ɯw/uw > uː
    • iw/yw > yː
    • aw > oː
    • ew, æw > øː
    • G > ∅ / V_V
  • affecting mostly persian borrowings
    • æ > Aː
    • Vh > Vː
    • h > ∅
    • ʕ > ∅
  • j > dʒ / #_
  • x > q
  • nj > jn
  • ∅ > U / #_{l,r}
  • eg > ig
  • key > kiy

Kyrgyz phonology

Vowels

front central1 back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close и [i] ү [y] ы [ɯ] у [u] ю [ju]
mid э [e] е [je] ө [ø] о [o] ё [jo]
open а [ɑ] я [jɑ]

Consonants

Kirghiz consonant phonemes:

Bilabial Dental/
alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar/
uvular
plosive п б
[p] [b]
т д
[t] [d]
к г
[k]/[q] [g]/[ʁ]
nasal м
[m]
н
[n]
ң
[ŋ]
trill р
[r]
fricative (ф) (в)
([f]) ([v])
с з
[s] [z]
ш
[ʃ]
х
[χ]
affricate
ч ж
[t​͡ʃ] [d​͡ʒ]
approximant л
[l]
й
[j]

Scratch

/m/ vs. /b/ vs. /p/

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Uyghur Tuvan Sakha Chuvash Halaj
before, ago murun burın burun burun
nose murun murın burun burun burungaar мурун
pistachio miste piste pista fıstık
knife bıçaq pışaq pichoq bıçak bižek bıhax
cook/boil/ripen bış(ır)- pis(ir)- pish- piş- piş-
ice muz muz muz boz buz muz muz buus/muus pъʷr
grey boz boz bo'z büz boz boz/bos
pepper murç burış murch
corner burç burış burch муннук
moustache murut murt murt (murt) burut бытык
1000 miŋ mıŋ ming meŋ bin miŋ muŋ muŋ pin
neck moyun moyın bo'yin muyın boyun boyun moyun моонњу mъj būun
height/shore/self/body boy boy bo'y boy boy bot/bod- bod
syllable, joint muun buwın bo'g'in boğum (node)
tower munara/burana munara minora minare
screw bura bura bura bur-
brave märt mard mert
cat mışıq mısıq mushuk pesi pişik
a musical instrument qomuz qobız qo'biz xomuz qomus/qamıs
holiday mayram mayram bayram bayram bayram
tabacco/cigarette tameki temeki taakpy табах
grandchild nebere nemere evara сиэн
cotton paxta maqta paxta
fly çımın şıbın chivin çeben cibin çivin сарсырҕа
soap samın sabın sovun saman
straw, thorn saman/samal saban somon saman saman savaŋ šъʷma sabana
bowl/plate tabaq tabaq tovoq tavak
food, throat tamaq tamaq/tağam tomoq
rag çüpürök şüperek/şüberek
grammatical stuff
I men men men män ben män мин
this bu(l) bul bu bu bu бу
at this, here mında манна
Q -BI MA mi -mI mI -mu
NEG -BA -MA -ma -mA -mA -mA

/l/ vs /n/ vs /r/

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Russian
duty mildet mindet
illness ildet indet illat illet
shirt köynök köylek ko'ylak gömlek
wall dubal duwal devor(/devol) duvar
level deŋgeel deŋgey
snow leopard ilbirs ilvirs irbis
genealogy şanjıra? şejire shajara

/s/ and /t/ to /ç/

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish
mouse çıçqan tışqan sichqon sıçan
hair çaç şaş / şäş soch çäç saç
barber çaç taraç şaş taraz sartarosh tıraş

Syllable codas

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Uyghur
-CC
drunk (P) mas mas mast mest
friend (P) dos dos do'st dus/dust- dost dos()t
-rC
pepper murç burış murch
corner burç burış
property, domain mülk mülik mulk
forty qırq qırıq qirq kırk
freedom/will erk erik erk
Turk türk türik turk türk
Turkic türki
sign(ificance)/authority barq
screaming barq
explosion/lightning (A) barq
backwards ters teris ters ters
big cat (P) bars barıs bars
hot-tempered/touchy qırs qırıs(…)
back art art
four tört tört to'rt dürt dört
~homeland jurt yurt yurt
old qart qart qart(ay/ang)
salty cheese balls qurut qurut qurut
worm qurt qurt
outside sırt sırt
brittle mort mort mo'rt
pear almurut almurt
-NC
square ayant
sugar (P) qant qant qand
attention qunt
eagerness/resolve/zeal (A) qunt
treasure kenç keniş
young genç
crush, grind, pound janç- janış(ta)- yanch-
fame daŋq daŋq dong
peace/quiet tınç tınış tinch
gender jınıs jınıs jins
-lC
giant/hero alp alıp alp
false (A) qalp qalt??? qalb kalp
heart/soul qalb kalp
shape/form/position/pattern/? (A) qalıp qalıp, qalp- qolib
people (A) qalq xalıq xalq halk
onomatopœia of tears? melt
qalt
a quick/sudden movement jalt jalt yalt
?lose joğot- joğalt- yo'qot- yuğalt- yoqat-
key (kilit) kilt kalit kilit
nation ulut ult ulus
cloud bulut bult bulut
other
younger sister siŋdi siŋli singil siŋil/siŋli- siŋil/siŋli-
brown/dark qoŋur qoŋır qo'ng'ir/gungurt

Metathesis

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Uyghur Tuvan Sakha Halaj Chuvash
lung öpkö ökpe o'pka üpkä öfke öpkä ökpe hikkä öpke/üpke
freckle sepkil sekpil sepkil/sepkül sipkel sivil säpkä/säpkü/säpgün sekpil ebir
cover/gate/door qapqa(q) qaqpa(q) qopeqoq/qopqe qap(q)aq/qobuğ qapqa(q) kapak qaqpaq xappax xobъ
tabacco/cigarette tameki temeki taakpy
river dayra darıya daryo
world ynö düniye dunyo
rain jamğır jaŋbır yomg'ir yaŋğır yağmur yamğur/yaŋmur samıır śomъr
hard work emgek eŋbek emgak emek
brand(→sign(→letter)) tamğa taŋba tamg'a
spin, turn around aylan- aynal- aylan-
  • Kg. жалаңаяк ~ жыңайлак
  • Kz. ağılşın - English
  • Tr. keçi - cf. eçki
  • Kz. mağan/sağan/oğan/soğan/osığan/etc.
  • Kg. ajıdaar, Kz. ajdaha, aydahar < ajdar-hā (?)

ı / jı discrepancy

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Uyghur Tuvan Sakha Halaj Chuvash Old Turkic Karakhanid
song ır (jır) jır jir jır (ır) jır (ır) ır ırıa ır ır/jır
cry ıyla- jıla- yig'la- yıla- ağla- ağla- ı(j)ıla- ığla- ığla-/yığla-
tree/wood jığaç ağaş yog'och ağaç yağaç ɨ̃jaš hağaç jɨvъś ığaç yığaç
swift ıldam jıldam ildam, ildam-jildam

Arabic words with w-

Arabic words that start with w
Arabic word gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish
vazir vezir ubazir
vaqt? time (u)waqıt waqıt vaqt vaqıt vakit
waTan homeland ootan otan vatan vatan vatan
representative ökül ökil vakil väkil vekil
occurrence oquya oqıyğa voqea vaqıyğa vuku(at) ?

ë

ŋ/ng/nk/etc

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek
wheel döŋgelek döŋgelek/doŋğalaq do'ngalak
round (circular), circle (n./adj.) tegerek döŋgelek to'garak
round (spherical) toğoloq domalaq dumaloq/yumaloq
something bir deme bir-deme
nothing eç teke eşteŋe
older brother's wife jeŋe/jeŋeʃe jeŋge/jeŋeşe
shadow kölökö köleŋke ko'lanka
bell qoŋğuroo qoŋıraw qo'ng'iroq
fan jelpiŋgiç/jelpigiç jelpigiş yelpig'ich
woodpecker toŋquldaq toqıldaq

d/t

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek
voice dobuş? dawıs
sound dabış? dabıs? tovush/dovush?
sound (ling) tıbış dıbıs
wheel döŋgölök döŋgelek/doŋğalaq do'ngalak
round (circular), circle (n./adj.) tegerek döŋgelek to'garak
round (spherical) toğoloq domalaq dumaloq/yumaloq
field taala dala dala/tola (dial.)
moreover dağı tağı

Multiple words, similar origin?

  • "sound/voice"
    • Kyrgyz dobuş (voice?), dabış (sound), tıbış (language sound)
    • Kazakh dawıs (voice), dabıs (same?), dıbıs (language sound)
    • Uzbek tovush/dovush (sound/voice)
  • "wheel/round/cirlce" - Turkic words for round and high things
    • Kazakh döŋgelek (wheel, round/circular), doŋğalaq (wheel, dial.), domalaq (round/spherical)
    • Kyrgyz döŋgölök (wheel), tegerek (round/circular), toğoloq (round/spherical)
    • Uzbek do'ngalak (wheel), to'garak (round/circular), dumaloq/yumaloq (round/spherical)

Epenthetic vowels

gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Uzbek Tatar Turkish Uyghur Tuvan Sakha Chuvash Halaj
bridge köpürö köpir ko'prik
chest kökürök kökirek ko'krak
neighbour qoşuna qo'shni

K/G

front/back differences
gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Tatar Uzbek
hammer balqa balğa bolg'a
currant qarağat qaraqat qorag'at
blackberry büldürkön büldirgen

I/E

front/back differences
gloss Kyrgyz Kazakh Tatar Uzbek
mill tegirmen tiyirmen tegermän tegirmon
name (arabic?) ısım esim ism
rarely seerek siyrek siyrak
later kiyin keyin keyin
mare bee biye biya
baby aldey äldiy
some kee key
jaw eek iyek
toddler nariste närestey
story aŋgeme äŋgime
shoulder iyin iyin egin
crop/grain egin egin ekin

Other Stuff

  • илбирс / ирбис
  • ұқсас / окшош
  • сөйле- / сүйлө-
  • бидай / буудай
  • ұлу / үлүл
  • жиек / жээк // жиен / жээн
  • жырғау / жыргал

Fate of word-final lenis series

i ü e ö a o ı u
b *eb ‘house’ *sub ‘water’
*tebe ‘camel’
d *ed(-gü) ‘good’ *bod ‘stature’ *qud- ‘pour’
*adaq ‘foot’ *boda- ‘paint’
g *tāğ ‘mountain’ -lIğ *būg ‘steam’
*ögür ‘herd’
*ögey ‘unrelated’
*bağır ‘liver’ *soğul- ‘dry off’
oğul ‘son’
soğıq ‘cold’
*suğur ‘marmot’
Kyrgyz b üy
d iygi boy quy-
ayaq boyo-
g -lŪ
üyür
ögöy
bōr sōl-/ūl/sūq sūr
Altay b üy
d boy
poyo-
g -lU
ǖr
öy
sōl-/sōq
Kazakh b üy suw
tüye
d iygi boy quy-
ayaq boya-
g taw -lI buw
üyir
ögey
bawır suwal-/ul/suwıq suwır
Chuvash b av- şıv
təʷve səʷvəʷr
d xıv-
ura pəʷve-
g tu pəʷv
pəʷver sıval-//sive
Uyghur b öy su
tögä
d boy quy-
ayaq boya-
g tağ -liq buğ
beğir soğaq
Uzbek b uy suv
tuya
d boy quy-
åyåq boya-
g tåğ -liq buğ
uyur
ogey
såvuq suğur
Turkmen b öy suv
düye
d eygi boy ğuy-
boya-
g dāğ būğ
(ȫr-)
ögey/övey
sovuq
Sakha b ū
taba
d ütüö kut-
atax butuy-
g tıa
üör
(egian)
bıar uol-/
Tuvan b ög suğ
teve
d eki bot
adaq budu-
g dağ
ȫr bār sōl-/sōk
Khakas b ib suğ
tibe
d pos xus-
azax
g tağ
ȫr
ȫy
sōl-
Khalaj b häv suw
d bod
hadaq boda-
g tāğ
sovuq
Turkish b ev
deve
d iyi boy (kuy-)
ayak boya-
g -lI
öyür
üvey
bāır sōul-/sōuk
Salar b
töje, töüvä, tüvi
d ī (boy-)
(boya-)
g
bağır soχ
Shor b
d (poz-) (qus-)
g
ȫr
ȫy
sōq
Sary Yugur b
te, ti
d poz quz-
g
bağır soq