Kypchak features

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  • -чУ past.impf (kir; cf alt, atv)
  • -AтIн past.impf (kaz; cf. alt??, cjs??)
  • -E impf (kum)
  • prog
    • jat-/tur-/otır-/jür- (kaz, kir)
      • +aor (kir)
      • +(old aor)~fut (kaz)
    • aor (tat, kum?)
  • 3p aor -E
    • +0 (tat, kum)
    • +ды/д (kaz, kaa)
    • +т (kir)


  • tons of Oghuz words
    • reflexes all over kum (, crh, etc.)
    • some reflexes in tat (and maybe bak and nog)
    • almost none in kaz (and kaa)
    • even less in kir
  • tons of Mongolian words
    • all over kaz, kir, tat, (bak?)
    • less in kum, crh, etc.


  • maybe something with the specific implementations of VH?
  • yoticised letters lol
  • presence of /æ/ / number of vowel phonemes ?