Turkic-Mongolic cognates

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This page's purpose is to collect cognates between Turkic and Mongolic languages. In the end, I'd like to organise it all by date of borrowing.

"Altaic" just means that it's a word used in support for the Altaic theory—for my purposes, this means something like a really early loan of probably T→M directionality.

First part of a list

Classical Mongolian Khalkha Old Turkic? Kyrgyz Kazakh classification
малгай ‘hat’ малакай ‘men's fur hat without lapel or brim’ малақай M→T
шүүлс ‘lynx’ сүлөөсүн ‘lynx’ сілеусін M→T
эр эр Altaic?
тэмдег тамга Altaic?
болд ‘steel’ болот
баатар баатыр батыр M→T
алтан алтын алтын
цэцэг
тунгалаг ‘clear’ тунук ‘clear’
мөнх ‘eternal’ мәңгі
жаргал жыргал жырғау
ой ‘mind, intellect’ ой ‘thought’ ой
beläk бэлэг ‘gift’ белек ‘gift’ M→T
тэнгэр
зориг
чул
жимс жемиш жеміс T→M
бал бал бал
бар ‘tiger’ барс
buqa бух ‘bull’ бука ‘bull’
гэр-бүл ‘family’ үй-бүлө ‘family’ M→T
бүр бир бір
бүтэн бүт бүтін
yomaq домог жомок
tanı-? тани- тааны- таны-
эрх эрк ‘free will’ ерік ‘free will’
ээмэг иймек T→M
эсгэ(лэн) ачы/ачкылт
шээ- сий-
шар сары Altaic
шивнэ- шыбыра-
бороо ‘rain’ бороон ‘storm’
бэлтрэг бөлтүрүк
мал мал мал
ихэр эгиз егіз
жил ‘year’ жыл жыл Altaic
илжиг ‘donkey’ эшек есек Altaic
дэл ‘mane’ жал ‘mane’ Altaic
даал? даалы ‘top of shoulders’ M→T
арга арга ‘way out (of a problem)’ M→T?
ар ‘back’ арка ‘back’
ар ‘back’ арт ‘back’
тамир ‘strength’ тамыр ‘vein, root’
тара- ‘scatter’ тара-т- ‘scatter’
тас ‘vulture’ таскара ‘vulture’
орд(он?) ‘palace’ ордо ‘palace’ орда ‘?’
орон ‘country/dwelling’ орун ‘place’ орын
тийм ‘such’ тим ‘~such’
мянга ‘thousand’ миң мың Altaic, ..?
будаа ‘rice’ буудай ‘wheat’ бидай ‘wheat’
буудай ‘wheat’ буудай ‘wheat’ бидай ‘wheat’
tölä- ‘pay’ төл- ‘pay’ төлө- ‘pay’ төле- ‘pay’
—? төл ‘baby herd animal’ төл төл
дүлөй ‘deaf’
өйдө ‘up’
каалга ‘door of yurt’
уна- ‘ride’, унаа ‘transport’ унаа ‘transport’
саа- ‘milk’ саа- сау- ambiguous in Kyrgyz
саам ‘mare's milk’ саамал
саадах ‘quiver’ саадак
ширь ‘leather (thin)’ шири ‘chrome leather’
булигаар ‘worked leather’ булгаары ‘worked leather’
боо ‘string’
köndelen ‘across’ хөндлөн ‘across’ көлдөлөң ‘kittycorner → lambskin mat’
buɣura ‘male camel’ буур буура ‘male camel’ ← *bogıra ambiguous in Kyrgyz
budaɣa ‘cereal/rice/food’ ботко ‘porridge’ ботқа ‘porridge, mess’
халгай ‘nettle’ қалақай ‘nettle’ M→T
бэлэн ‘ready’ белен ‘ready’ M→T
xurigan хурга ‘lamb’ козу қозы Altaic
šatu шат ‘stairs’ шаты ‘stairs’ ~саты T→M
чыда- ‘put up with’
тунгалаг тунук
em-e ‘female’ эм- ‘nurse’ v.i. ем- ‘nurse’ v.i. ?
urtu урт ‘long’ узун ‘long’ ??
xonuɣ ‘night/night lodging’ хоног конок ‘guest’ қонақ
xonu- ‘spend the night’ хонох кон- ‘stay the night’

My additions to Csáki's list

Include

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning include in paper?
zirɣal жаргал жыргал ‘pleasure’ yes
… bule гэр бүл үй бүлө ‘family’ yes
ele л эле ‘just/only’ yes
!yomaq ‘legend’ domuɣ домог жомок ‘fairy tale’ yes
belterge бэлтрэг бөлтүрүк ‘wolf cub’ yes
arɣ-a арга арга ‘way out’ yes
tas тас тазкара ‘vulture’ yes
timin? ‘just now’ tein/teimy тийм тим ‘such’ yes
buɣudai буудай буудай ‘wheat’ yes
unaɣ-a уна- ‘falling, driving’ унаа ‘means of transportation’ yes
xural хурал курултай ‘meeting’ yes
ulus/uluš ‘settlement, residence’ ulus улс улут ‘nation’ yes
silykei шүлхий шилекей ‘saliva’ yes
cangɣa- цанга- (southern) чаңка- ‘be thirsty’ yes
zolbin золбин жолбун ‘stray’ yes
zegerde зээрд жээрде ‘chestnut horse’ yes
tos- тос- тос- ‘meet, pick up’ yes
cana цана чана ‘ski, sled’ yes
buɣu buɣu буга бугу ‘deer’ yes
xoruɣ-a, xorij-a(n) хороо короо ~‘corral’ yes
uruq(?) ‘rope’ urɣ-a(n), uɣurɣ-(a) урга, уураг, уурга укурук ‘lasso pole’ yes
tøry- төр- төрө- ‘bear child’ yes
(ös-) øs- өс- ‘grow (v.i., person)’ өс- ‘grow (v.i., not person)’ ‘grow’ yes
belen бэлэн белен ‘ready’ yes
kørsi(n) хөрш Kazakh көрші neighbour yes
uruɣ ‘seed; relatives’ uruɣ ураг ‘relatives by marriage’ уруу ‘tribe’, урук ‘clan; seed; relatives’ +yes
(rasayan) (a)rasijan рашаан арашан ‘holy/mineral spring’ yes
cuɣ цуг чогуу ‘together’ yes
yalɣu ‘stupid person’ zalxaɣu залхуу жалкоо ‘lazy’ ?yes
ɣolumta голомт коломто ‘hearth’ yes
xaɣalɣ-a(n) хаалга каалга ‘yurt door’ yes
örgün, örgin ‘throne’ ørgyge(n) өргөө өргөө ‘Khan's yurt’ yes
bøle/byly бүл бөлө ‘progeny of sisters’ yes
byky бүх бүкүл ‘all, whole, everything’ yes
?čaɣïla- ‘be noisy’, ?čaqïl- ‘be cut’ cakilɣan цахилгаан чагылган ‘lightning’ yes
mal ‘wealth’ mal мал мал ‘heard animal’ ?yes
aɣïl ayil айл айыл ‘camp, village’ yes
alaɣ-a(n) алга алакан ‘palm’ yes
cida- чад- чыда- ‘put up with’ ‘be able to’ yes
cimki- чимхэ- чымчы- ‘pinch’ yes
dalu дал далы ‘shoulder’ yes
møndyr мөндөр мөндүр ‘hail’ yes
saɣadaɣ саадах саадак ‘quiver’ yes
coxu цох чоку ‘forehead’ yes
darui даруй дароо ‘immediately’ yes
dylei дүлий дүлөй ‘deaf’ yes

Make a point with, but don't include

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning include in paper?
qaɣur- xaɣur- хуур- куур(у)- ‘fry’ +no
tanï- tani- tani- тааны- ‘know’ ??
qatïɣ xataɣu хатуу катуу ‘tough’ no+
burčaq burcaɣ буурцаг буурчак ‘bean, pea’ no+
saɣ- saɣa- саа- саа- ‘milk (v.t.)’ no+

*Might* be of Mongolian origin

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning include in paper?
qalqan xalx-a халх калка(н(ч)) shield ?no
qara-? xara- хар- кара- ‘look at’ ?no
ulam ‘always’ ulam ‘further’ улам ‘still more’ улам ‘always; still more’ ‘always; further’ ?no
bolud болд болот ‘steel’ ??
tungɣalaɣ тунгалаг тунук ‘clear’ ?
cimeg чимэг чийме ‘decoration’ ?
zang зан Kazakh заң ‘law’ ‘nature of, customs’ no?
qoŋqiu/quŋqau xongxu хонх коңгуроо ‘bell’ ?
baɣïrsa-? boɣursuɣ? боорцог боорсок ‘fried dough’ ?no
botu botuɣ-a, botuɣu(n) ботго бото ‘baby camel’ ?no
цог чок (Kz. шоқ) ember

Don't Include

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning include in paper?
bütün bytyn бүтэн бүтүн, бүт ‘entire’ no
bütgü, bütkü bykyli бүхэл бү(т)күл ‘entire’ no
bat batu бат бат ‘strong, fast’ no
mengü møngke мөнх мөңгү ‘glacier’, (маңги ‘eternal’) ‘eternal’ no
beläk beleg бэлэг белек ‘gift’ no
tamïr tamir тамир ‘bodily strength’ тамир ‘vein, stem’ ‘vein; strength’ no
tara- tara- тара- тарат- ‘scatter (v.t.)’ no
arpa arbai арвай арпа ‘barley’ no
meŋ mengge мэнгэ мэң ‘mole (facial feature)’ no
tegirmän tegerm-e тээрэм тэгирмен ‘mill’ no
siɣazaɣai шаазгай сагызган ‘magpie’ (onom.) no
bölük bylyg бүлэг бөлүк ‘section, division’ no
tōr тор тор ‘wire, gate, net’ no
tajaq tajaɣ таяг таяк ‘stick’ no
öŋ øngge(n) өнгө өң ‘colour’ no
(čöl-lig/čöl-gi) cøl цөл чөл ‘desert’ no
teg tig тэг тик ‘straight up, piont; like’ no
tekä teke тэх теке ‘male goat’ no
sid- sige- шээ- сий- ‘urinate’ no
kölük kølge(n) хөлөг Kazakh көлік ‘transport, vehicle’ no
ay+la-? ajala- аял- ‘travel’ айлан- ‘turn around, rotate’ ‘turn around’ no
čïn ching чин чын ‘true’ ← Chinese no
töl töl төл төл ‘baby herd animal’ no
učra-? ucir учир ‘reason’ учур ‘moment, period’ ? no
salqïm salki(n) салхи ‘wind’ салкын ‘cool’ wind, windy no
qurɣaq xuɣurai хуурай кургак ‘dry’ no
yaqa zax-a зах жака ‘collar’ no
saqal saxal сахал сакал ‘facial hair, beard’ no
körk+ køgerken хөөрхөн көркөм ‘good-looking’ no
bulaq bulaɣ булаг булак ‘spring’ no
—? —? оромог оромо ‘wrapped steamed pastry’ no
qurč xurca хурц курч ‘sharp’ (strong?) no
оро- ‘wrap’ no
?bylteger+ken ?бүлтгэр-хэн бүлдүркөн ‘blackberry’ no
qïraɣu kiraɣu хяруу кыроо ‘hoarfrost’ no
orun orun орон орун ‘place’ no
tölä- tøly- төл- төлө- ‘pay’ no
bel bel бэл бел ‘waist’ no
yoluq- zoluɣa- золго- жолук- ‘meet’ no
хулан кулан onager no
berik böke, beki бөх, бэх бек (kk. берік) strong no
давс туз salt no
buzaʁu biraɣu бяруу музоо calf no
эм эм medicine no
belgü belge белги ‘sign’ no
idi eje-n эзэн ээ ‘master’ no
ordu orda ‘palace’ no
qarşı qarsi каршы ‘against’ no
balıq balaqa-sun ‘city’ no
täŋri tngri ‘heaven’ no
üli-? üli- ‘compare’ no
kökürčkän kegürjegen/kegürjigen көгүчкөн dove no
qut qutuɣ хутаг кут sanctity, goodness no
tarığ tariya тариа таруу crop → millet no

Need to sort

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning include in paper?
булчин булчуң muscle yes
дАА да modal particle yes
-ч/-ж -чУ verb suffix yes
багш бакшы teacher, witch doctor yes
эдгэ- айык- get better (v.i.) ??
төр төр minister (political)
бэлэн белен ready
хэрээс ‘criss-cross’ кереге ‘wall of yurt made of crossed wood’
bod- буд- боё- ‘paint’ no
qorɣa корго- place of refuge → defend yes
цэг чекит dot, period yes(?)
sun- сунга- сун- stretch→extend→suggest,offer
qirğaʁul? хяруул кыргоол pheasant yes
čag цаг чак (period of) time → tense
erte эрт эрте early
зуур- жууру- knead dough
шивэр шибер thicket/meadow
хөө- көбө- swell, increase in size
kög? хөө көө soot
чулгоо портянка = foot wrapping ?
шыйрак animal's lower leg yes
сонино сонун new → interesting yes
хэхир- кекир- burp
хамт камты- (join) together
хараа- карга- to curse
jayidaŋ? жайдак? barren, unsaddled
qaraɣu? каруу? power, strength
хүхэр күкүрт sulfur
ширеңке? matches
хэдэр кежир crotchety
?širi шир шири leather yes
bez/böz bös бөс бөз a type of cotton cloth no
bedük? büdügün бүдүүн бийик high, tall; fat, large no
ögede өөд өйдө upwards
?? üčügüken ‘small’ ‘light’ ичке ‘thin’
хөөмий ‘throat singing’ көмөкөй ‘uvula’ yes
тоть тото parrot yes
дууриа-, дуурай- туура- copy (person), mimick
хав- ‘trap (v.t.)’ капкан ‘trap (n.)’
үйл ‘deed’ иш ‘work, deed’ no
хир кир dirty, laundry
цоч- / цочир- чочу- / чочут- be startled / startle
цогул- чогул-
дов ‘hill’ тоо ‘mountain’, дөбө ‘hill’ HMM
šoɣ шог шок ‘joker, clowning-around’
алх балка ‘hammer’ no
цал чал ‘old / old man’
буурал буурул ‘dark(?) grey (of hair)’
мохоо мокок ‘dull’
худаг кудук ‘well’ ~yes
булх- ‘make wet’ булга- ‘make ~dirty’
qozı quraɣ-an хурга ‘1yo sheep’ козу ‘lamb’ lamb no
сав- саба-/чап- hit, beat
саваа сабоо pole for beating wool into felt
quɣu qun хун [ак]куу swan no
мөр ‘footprint’ мөөр ‘seal’ ??
талх ‘bread’ талкан ‘ground grain / meal’ ‘bread, meal’ yes
?daqin дагы ‘more, still’
tala тал талаа ‘field, steppe’
уурга укурук ‘lasso pole’ yes
сонирхо- ‘be interested in’ сонурка- ‘be amazed’, kz. сонырқа- ‘be amazed/amused; find new pasture’ yes
arai арай араң, (kaz.) әрең ‘barely’ "a little too; not quite; hardly; barely"
аз
büligen бүлээн - warm (of liquids) мелүүн - warm (of air) warm
чийг - damp, humid чийки (kk. шикі) - raw ?
тушаа тушоо (kk. тұсау) (horse) hobble
jele зэл желээ (kk. желі) ‘web’ rope for tying young horses to while milking mare; tethering place; vine, stem of creeping plants
siri- шир- шыры- to quilt
sirü шүр шуру coral, bead
чацаргана чычырканак, kz. шырғанақ sea-buckthorn
маяг маяк (signal??)
цуу чуу ('ruckus'), (kaz.) шу noise
siber шивэр/шивир шыбыр, (kaz.) сыбыр whisper
siŋge- шинг- сиң-, (kaz.) сің- soak into, be absorbed
sirbe- ширв- шыпыр-, (kaz.) сыпыр- sweep
sir ‘varnish, laquer’ шир сыр ‘whitewash’ (+kaz) ‘paint, enamel’ paint?
siri шир шири, сірі rawhide
siqa- шах- сык- squeeze
ters тэрс (opposing in view) терс (physically opposing) opposing
aru ар аары/әрі ‘far side’ rear, back side
arudu ар(т) ‘back side’ in the rear/back, behind
baqa baqa бах бака frog, toad no
tuɣ туг туу/ту flag, banner
ариун аруу/ару
naɣaču (check) нағашы (kaz) (male relative on mother's side)
način (check) ылаачын falcon
inag (check) ынак favourite identified by Khabtagaeva → yes
dari дары gunpowder → medicine (but cf. Persian dāru ‘medicine, gunpower’) identified by Csaki → no
капчыгай gorge
aŋqau аңкыгый (←Csáki)
tüge- түгөн-, түгөт- be enough → be exhausted / exhaust
аң hole
tebene темене needle (?)
бод мал бодо мал heavy livestock
tobči товч топчу button
xuɣurai хуурай куурай dry → dry grass(es) ?
möči мөч мүчө body part, member
alisun (check) алс алыс far
мөлж- мөлжү- gnaw

Csáki's list for Kyrgyz

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Kyrgyz (or other) meaning
abisun (WMo) abısın sister in laws
abura- abra- (south) ‘be many’ to save, rescue, nurse
alus алс alıs further
alisun alısın second crop
alja- aljı- ‘be wrong’ get tired, exhausted
angqaɣu aŋqoo ‘simple-minded’ hard palate
angɣai- aŋqıy- / aŋqay- ‘be wide open’
arča arča juniper
arči- aarčı- clean
asara- asıra- ‘adopt a child’ protect
elči (WMo) elči envoy
itelgü itelgi falcon
egejegei (WMo) ejigey red curds, dry cheese
baɣana (WMo) mamı? pillar, pole
baital baytal 3-yo horse
baɣatur баатар baatır hero, brave
baja баз baja brother-in-law
berket- bekit- ‘lock’ strengthen
bilčara- bıljıra- ‘be slippery’ soften
begelei meeley mittens
bulanggir(tai) (buldur?) dim
büldürge (WMo) büldürgö / büldürgü loop on a whip handle
boljal boljol term
boro'an бороо boroon snowstorm → storm
buɣurul burul grey
bosaɣa босго bosoğo threshold
bödene bödönö quail
börte börtö dark chestnut (horse)
bötege bötögö bird innards
čagaɣan цагаан čağan ‘1st moth of Mongol year’ white → maple
čabidur čabdar yellow horse with white mane and tail
čečen цэцэн čečen ‘orator’ wise → minstrel
čida- чад- čıda- be able to → put up with
čilbuɣur čılbır chain
čiray царай čıray ‘facial features’ face, appearance, expression
čeber цэвэр чебер ‘prettily made’ nice, good
čer чер illness
*čöɣüče čöyčök small cup (bowl)
čöregei (WMo) čürök loon
demči (WMo) demči ‘doctor’? business man → suitor
doluɣana (WMo) dolono hawthorn
dönen dönön 3-4yo stallion
sar (WMo) sar, sarı hawk
ilɣa- ılğa- choose, select → differentiate
irjayi- ırjay- show one's bare teeth
erke erke spoiled, pampered
erkele- erkele- pamper
jada- зад-? jada- / taja- be exhausted
yadaɣu jadoo worn out
yalga- jalğa- connect, join
jasaɣul jasool ‘executive’ guard
jaɣuči juuču suitor
jüde- (WMo) jüdö- be tired, exhausted → be in hard times
qabirqa хавирга qabırğa rib, side, flank
qaiči хайч qayčı scissors
qanjuqa qanjığa saddle-thong
qabturɣa qapčıq ‘bag’ wallet, pocket, leather sack
qaragai (WMo) qarağay larch, spruce
qaraŋgui харанхуй qaraŋğı dark
qaraɣul qarool guard, watch
qarčiqai qarčığa falcon
qariɣu ?qayruu (←qɑyır-) objection
kekül хөхөл kökül ‘bangs’ horse's forlock
qiramaɣ (WMo) qılamıq powdery snow
kitad qıtat ‘black paint’ Chinese silk
genedte kenet-kenet ‘occasionally’ suddenly
kenye (WMo) kenje youngest child
quda quda groom's relatives ↔ bride's relatives
quduɣ худаг quduq well
ɣunajin qunaajın / qunaayın 3yo female animal
ɣunan qunan 3yo stallion
küren хүрэн küröŋ brown (horse)
*qonolqa (WMo) qonoq ‘guest’; qon- ‘stay the night’ shelter for the night
qongɣur qoŋur dark brown
kur qaraqur grouse
kökün kökürök breast → chest
kömegei (WMo) kömököy Adam's apple
makta- магта- maqta- praise
malaqay малгай malaqay hat
manglai манлай maŋday forehead
mata- (WMo) mata- bend →/, disturb
mergen мэргэн mergen marksman
mese (WMo) meskey ‘pot’; mizdüü ‘sharp’ glutton; sharp, sword
moqadaq moqo- ‘make dull’; moqoq ‘dull’ stupid
möče(?) мөч? möčö body part → body
mültüre- möltürö- break loose → get engorged; shine
moyil moyul bird-cherry
niɣ (WMo) nıq, (?mıq ‘nail’) solid
nökör нөхөр nögör friend → best man
noqta noqto horse halter
učira- учр- učura- encounter
onggi uŋğu socket for axe handle
ölke ölkö ‘country’ sunny side → area
saɣadaq (WMo) saadaq quiver
saqaɣu (WMo) saqoo ‘stutterer’ a horse disease, (deaf)
siläɣüsün шилүүс sülöösün lynx
siltaɣ(an) sıltoo motive
sirxa-n (WMo) sırqoo injury → illness, ailment
sauqa sooğa gift → candy, nice textile
suli (WMo) sulu feather grass → oats
söɣem сөөм sööm span
soqor сохор soqur blind
*solaqai (WMo) soloğoy left → left-handed
šibaɣa(n) šıbağa lot
silükei (WMo) шүлхий šilekey saliva
šiŋqor шонхор šumqar / šuŋqar falcon
takim тахим taqım knee cap
tanglai тагнай taŋday soft palate
tasam-a (WMo) тасам tasma ‘ribbon’ strap
tomaɣaɣ (WMo) tomoğo hawk headgear
toqum тохом toqum saddle cloth
toqta- toqto- stop
tögürig (WMo) tegerek / tögörök circle
töle- төл- tölö- pay
oboɣa (WMo) овоо oboo stone heap → mound
olja oljo loot

Khabtagaeva's list for Kyrgyz

Tuvan words:

  • adak 'lower part or mouth of a river'
  • aržān 'mineral spring; holy water'
  • dalay 'the sea'
  • dugay 'bend of a river' ← *tokai
  • ižēn 'den, lair' ← *ičēn ← *iči+GAn
  • koŋgul 'hollow'
  • köndey 'valley' ← *köndei/köŋdei
  • xužur 'salt marsh' ← *kujir
  • sayïr 'shallow place in river; pebble'
  • ūrgay 'cave' ← *ūrkai ← *aɣur+KAi 'mine, shaft; hole, pit; ...'
  • agār 'air'
  • boydus 'nature' ← *bodis
  • čïvar 'cold air' ← *jibar
  • dōzun 'dust' ← *tōsun ← *toɣor+sUn ~ OTk. tōz 'dust', toz- 'become dust'
  • kāŋ 'drought' ← *gāŋ ← Chinese gān 'dry'
  • xayā 'glow; dawn; sunset' ← *xayā ← *qayaɣa 'edge, border; lower part; side walls of yurt; [etc.]'
  • xerel 'sunbeam' ← *gerel ← ge+rA+l
  • xey 'air, gas; empty; in vain' ← *kei
  • salgïn 'wind' ← *salkin
  • solaŋgï 'rainbow' ← *soloŋga/solongqa
  • šūrɣan 'storm' ← **siɣur-GAn 'blizzard; storm with cold rain'
  • tuyā 'glow; radiance' ← **tuyaɣa 'ray, beam, radiance'
  • üyer 'flood' ← *üyer ~ OTk. *ögüz 'river'
Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Tuvan Kyrgyz (or other) meaning
*adaq *adag адаг adak ’lower part or mouth of a river’ ‘end, finish; extremity’

The oldest cognates

These words don't clearly have a given source, and are common to both Mongolic and Turkic. They are normally used to argue for the Altaic hypothesis, but were probably just very early Turkic ~loans in Mongolic (or something like that).

gloss Old Turkic Chuvash Mongolic Hungarian other reconstruction? sound correspondences
yellow-brown yağız dayir [1], [2], [3], ![4]
grey boz boro/bora Tung. boroŋ Turk. boz [3], [5]
stone tāş čul čilaɣun *tıla- [5], [6], [4], [7]
cow iŋäk ünigen Manchu [7]
male cow öküz văkăr hüker ökör [3], [8], [9]
qoş qolba- [10]
bış-/piş- (piś-?) bol(ba)- [10]
rabbit tabışğan taula- [10], [7], [11]
copper yez dere- [1], [3], [5]
twins ikiz yĕkĕr ikeri/ikere iker [3], [5], [9]
black qara xura qara ![3]
yellow sarığ šură sira sárga ![3], [4], [11]?
red qızıl xĕrlĕ ![10], [3]
mud,marsh sāz śur ?sibar/siro- sár [3], [5], [9]?, [4]? [12]
donkey äşgäk ažak? eljigen Tung. eyixen [10], [7], [11]?
self ȫz öber/öger [3], [12]
other ȫzkä öbere/ögere [3], [12]
yǖr nūr
tear yaş śul nilbu- [1], [10], [5], [4]?
young yaş jalaɣu/nilqa Tung. ńalun [1]
write, draw yaz- śïr- jiru- Tung. niru-
udder yälin deleŋ
reed yēz dere-
good/upper/superior yig/yeg dege- Tung. deg-/deye-
rope/thread yip/yıp śip dege-
musk yıpar jıɣar gyopár
fist yudruq nidurɣa Tung. nurgan<*nudurgan
heart yüräk čəre jirüken
ara-? ír
face yǖz śӑvar düri/?niɣur
young cow buzağu păru biraɣu borjú Tung. berū/borē
snow qār yur kira- ![9], [4]
~bald qaşqa qaljan [10], [7], [11]?
spoon qaşuq qalbuɣa [10], [5]
musical instrument qopuz Khalkha quur [13], [3]
blue/sky kȫk kăvak köke [9], [5]
bridge köprüg kögürge/kögerge/kegürge [14]
baby animal köşäk gölüge/gölige kölyök/kölök
to swell köb-e- köge- Ewk. kebe- [14], ![13], ![12]
find (out) tap- tup- taɣa- [14]
camel täbä tĕve teme ![14]
dream tül/tüş/tüşä- tölge Tung. tolgin [10], ![11]
tear/grate/etc. üz- hürü- Tung. furu- [8], [3], [5]
stirrup üzäŋü yărana (*üräŋä) döröge Tung. durēŋki [1], [3]
cattle nose ring yüzük śĕr/śĕrĕ dörö gyűrű [1]
enemy/war yağı śu dayi- Tung. dayi- [1], [2]
lick yalğa- śula-/śəvla doluɣa-/doliya- Tung. dalaja- [1]
stick to yap- niɣa- Tung. nabga- [1], [14], ![11], [4]
leaf yapurğaq nabči
flat yapız naptaɣar Tung. naptagā/naptakā, Korean năpčak
settlement ağıl ayil [2]
health sağ sɨvə sayi- [2]
warm yılığ dulaɣan [1], ![2], [7]
lead qorğaşin? qorğaljin [10]
thousand biŋ/bıŋ pin minɣan [5]
man ēr ar ere Manchu ferxe
Orok pero(n)
[5]
  1. Mongolic wd-initial /d, n, .../ ↔ Turkic /j/
  2. Mongolic /ayi/ ↔ Turkic /aɣi/
  3. Mongolic, Volga /l/lb/lj/ ↔ Turkic /ʃ, l/
  4. Mongolic, Volga /r/ ↔ Turkic /z, r/
  5. Mongolic final vowel ↔ Turkic ∅
  6. Mongolic, Chuvash /ʧ/ ↔ Turkic /t/ ↔ */ti/
  7. Mongolic wd-initial /h/ ↔ Turkic ∅
  8. Mongolic, Turkic Vː ↔ Chuvash dipthong
  9. Vowel transposition
  10. -(ɣV)n suffix
  11. Mongolic long vowel ↔ Turkic VCV
  12. Mongolic ø ↔ Turkic Ck/Cg
  13. Mongolic VCV ↔ Turkic long vowel

Footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Mongolic wd-initial /d, n, .../ ↔ Turkic /j/
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Mongolic /ayi/ ↔ Turkic /aɣi/
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Mongolic, Volga /r/ ↔ Turkic /z, r/
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Vowel transposition
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Mongolic final vowel ↔ Turkic ∅
  6. Mongolic, Chuvash /ʧ/ ↔ Turkic /t/ ↔ */ti/
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 -(ɣV)n suffix
  8. 8.0 8.1 Mongolic wd-initial /h/ ↔ Turkic ∅
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Mongolic, Turkic Vː ↔ Chuvash dipthong
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Mongolic, Volga /l/lb/ ↔ Turkic /ʃ, l/
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Mongolic ø ↔ Turkic Ck/Cg
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Mongolic VCV ↔ Turkic long vowel
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mongolic long vowel ↔ Turkic VCV
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Mongolic G ↔ Turkic B