Mongolic words in Kazakh and Kyrgyz

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The purpose of this page is to collect words in modern Turkic languages that are of Mongolic origin. Any Turkic word that appears to be cognate to a Mongolic word should only be included in this list if it does not have a phonological equivalent in pre-13th-century Turkic. Words that do not clearly meet these criteria should be gathered as Turkic-Mongolic cognates until their history can be investigated further.

When a cognate doesn't exist in a certain language, "—" is used. When a word is similar to a Mongolic origin word, but is either not from Mongolic or is morphologically divergent, it is put in italics.

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Modern Turkic languages general gloss notes previous sources
kir kaz tat bak tur Csáki Khabtagaeva
zirɣa- жарга- жырга- жырға- ‘enjoy’
zirɣal жаргал жыргал жырғау ‘enjoyment, pleasure’
… bule гэр бүл ‘family’ үй бүлө ‘family’
ele л эле ‘just/only’
belterge бэлтрэг бөлтүрүк бөлтірік ‘wolf cub’
arɣ-a арга арга —? ‘way out’
tas тас тазкара ‘vulture’
timin? ‘just now’ tein/teimy тийм ‘such; thus’ тим ‘quietly’, тим эле ‘just because’ тым ‘extremely’ ‘such’
buɣudai буудай буудай бидай (?) ‘wheat’
unaɣ-a уна- ‘falling, driving’ унаа ‘means of transportation’
xural хурал курултай құрылтай ‘meeting’
ulus/uluš ‘settlement, residence’ ulus улс улут ұлт ‘nation’
cangɣa- цанга- (southern) чаңка- —? ‘be thirsty’
zolbin золбин жолбун —? ‘stray’
zegerde зээрд жээрде ‘chestnut horse’
tos- тос- тос- тос- ‘receive, encounter’ → ‘meet, pick up, catch’
cana цана чана шана ‘ski, sled’
buɣu buɣu буга бугу бұғы ‘deer’ should be 'buu' in Khalkha and Kyrgyz
xoruɣ-a, xorij-a(n) хороо короо қора ~‘corral, yard’
uruq(?) ‘rope’ urɣ-a(n), uɣurɣ-(a) урга, уураг, уурга укурук ‘lasso pole’
tøry- төр- төрө- ‘bear child’
(ös-) øs- өс- ‘grow (v.i., person)’ өс- ‘grow (v.i., not person)’ өс- ‘"’ ‘grow’
(qara-) qara- хар- кара- қара- ‘look at, watch’
belen бэлэн белен —? ‘ready’
kørsi(n) хөрш көрші neighbour of Turkic origin?
uruɣ ‘seed; relatives’ uruɣ ураг ‘relatives by marriage’ уруу ‘tribe’ +yes
урук ‘clan; seed; relatives’
(rasayan) (a)rasijan рашаан арашан ‘holy/mineral spring’ from Sanskrit originally
cuɣ цуг чогуу çok?? ‘together’
yalɣu ‘stupid person’ zalxaɣu залхуу жалкоо жалқау ‘lazy’ ?
ɣolumta голомт коломто қоламта - ‘hot ashes’ ‘hearth’
xaɣalɣ-a(n) хаалга каалга —? ‘yurt door’
örgün, örgin ‘throne’ ørgyge(n) өргөө өргөө ‘Khan's yurt’/‘palace’ probably of Turkic origin
bøle/byly бүл бөлө бөле ‘progeny of sisters’
byky бүх бүкүл бүкіл ‘all, whole, everything’
?čaɣïla- ‘be noisy’, ?čaqïl- ‘be cut’ cakilɣan цахилгаан ‘electricity’ чагылган ‘lightning’
mal ‘wealth’ mal мал мал мал mal ‘goods’ ‘heard animal’ "of Arabic origin"
aɣïl ayil айл айыл ауыл ‘camp, village’ of Turkic origin
alaɣ-a(n) алга алакан алақан el ‘palm’
cimki- чимхэ- чымчы- шымшы- çimdik ‘pinch’
dalu дал далы ‘shoulder’
møndyr мөндөр мөндүр ‘hail’
coxu цох чоку шоқы ‘mountain top’ ‘forehead’
darui даруй дароо дереу ‘immediately’ cf. Tajik "даррав"
dylei дүлий дүлөй дүлей ‘deaf’
talxan талх ‘bread’ талкан ‘ground grain / meal’ ‘bread, meal’
?daqin дагы ‘more, still’ тағы ‘more, still’ тагын
тал талаа дала ‘steppe, field’
сонин ‘news, interesting’ сонун ‘awesome’
—? төл төл төл ‘baby herd animal’
бүрхэх бүркөк ‘overcast’
hoimasun (MMo) оё-/оёмол оймо ‘sewn/patterned felt’
jasa- зас- жаса- жаса- ‘construct, arrange’ → ‘make’
багш ‘teacher’ бакшы бақсы ~‘shaman’
булчин булчуң бұлшық? ‘muscle’
чухал чукул ‘urgent’ шұғыл ‘urgent ‘important’
abisun (WMo) абысын ‘sister in laws’ yes
abura- abra- (south) ‘be many’ to save, rescue, nurse yes
alus алс алыс алыс far yes
alisun alısın second crop yes
alja- aljı- ‘be wrong’ get tired, exhausted yes
angqaɣu aŋqoo ‘simple-minded’ hard palate yes
angɣai- aŋqıy- / aŋqay- ‘be wide open’ yes
arča арча арша juniper yes
arči- аарчы- аршы- wipe (clean) yes
asara- asıra- ‘adopt a child’ protect yes
elči (WMo) элчи елші envoy of Turkic origin? yes
itelgü itelgi falcon yes
egejegei (WMo) ejigey red curds, dry cheese yes
baɣana (WMo) бакан бағана pillar, pole yes
baital baytal 3-yo horse yes
baɣatur баатар баатыр батыр(?) hero, brave yes
baja баз бажа бажа brother-in-law yes
berkit- berket- бекит- ‘lock’ беркіт- strengthen prob. not from Mongol yes
bilčara- bıljıra- ‘be slippery’ soften yes
begelei meeley mittens yes
bulanggir(tai) (buldur?) dim yes
büldürge (WMo) büldürgö / büldürgü loop on a whip handle yes
boljal boljol term yes
boro'an бороо ‘rain’ бороон ‘storm’ боран ‘storm’ snowstorm yes
buɣurul буурал буурул бурыл grey yes
bosaɣa босго босого босаға threshold yes
bödene bödönö quail yes
börte börtö dark chestnut (horse) yes
bötege bötögö bird innards yes
čagaɣan цагаан čağan ‘1st moth of Mongol year’ white → maple yes
čabidur čabdar yellow horse with white mane and tail yes
čečen цэцэн čečen ‘orator’ wise → minstrel yes
čida- чад- чыда- ‘put up with’ шыда- ‘"’ ‘be able to’ yes
čilbuɣur čılbır chain yes
čiray царай чырай ‘facial features’ шырай face, appearance, expression yes
čeber цэвэр чебер ‘prettily made’ nice, good yes
čer чер illness yes
*čöɣüče чөйчөк ‘bowl’ small cup (bowl) yes
čöregei (WMo) čürök loon yes
demči (WMo) demči ‘doctor’? business man → suitor yes
doluɣana (WMo) dolono hawthorn yes
dönen dönön 3-4yo stallion yes
sar (WMo) sar, sarı hawk yes
ilɣa- ılğa- choose, select → differentiate yes
irjayi- ırjay- show one's bare teeth yes
erke эрке ерке spoiled, pampered yes
erkele- эркеле- еркеле- pamper yes
jada- зад-? jada- / taja- be exhausted yes
yadaɣu jadoo worn out yes
yalga- jalğa- connect, join yes
jasaɣul jasool ‘executive’ guard yes
jaɣuči juuču suitor yes
jüde- (WMo) jüdö- be tired, exhausted → be in hard times yes
qabirqa хавирга кабырга ‘rib’ қабырға ‘wall’ rib, side, flank yes
qaiči хайч кайчы қайшы scissors yes
qanjuqa qanjığa saddle-thong yes
qabturɣa qapčıq ‘bag’ wallet, pocket, leather sack yes
qaragai (WMo) qarağay larch, spruce yes
qaraŋgui харанхуй караңгы қараңғы dark yes
qaraɣul qarool guard, watch yes
qarčiqai qarčığa falcon yes
qariɣu ?qayruu (←qɑyır-) objection yes
kekül хөхөл көкүл ‘bangs’ kâkül horse's forlock yes
qiramaɣ (WMo) qılamıq powdery snow yes
kitad qıtat ‘black paint’ Chinese silk yes
genedte kenet-kenet ‘occasionally’ suddenly yes
kenye (WMo) кенже youngest child yes
quda куда құда groom's relatives ↔ bride's relatives yes
quduɣ худаг кудук құдық well of Turkic origin yes
ɣunajin гунж кунаажын / кунаайын 3yo female animal yes
ɣunan гуна qunan 3yo stallion yes
küren хүрэн күрөң күрең brown (horse) yes
qonuq, qon- *qonolqa (WMo) конок ‘guest’; кон- ‘stay the night, perch, land’ қонақ ‘guest’ konuk shelter for the night prob. not from Mongol yes
qongɣur коңур қоңыр dark brown yes
kur qaraqur grouse yes
köküz kökü(n) хөх(?) көкүрөк көкірек göğüz breast → chest prob. not from Mongol yes
kömegei (WMo) көмөкөй ‘uvula’ Adam's apple yes
maɣta- магт- макта- мақта- praise yes
malaqay малгай малакай малақай (men's) hat yes
manglai манлай маңдай маңдай forehead yes
mata- (WMo) mata- bend →/, disturb yes
mergen мэргэн мерген мерген marksman yes
mese (WMo) meskey ‘pot’; mizdüü ‘sharp’ glutton; sharp, sword yes
moqadaq moqo- ‘make dull’; мокок ‘dull’ моқал stupid → dull yes
möče(?) мөч? мүчө ‘body part, member’ мүше body part → body yes
mültüre- möltürö- break loose → get engorged; shine yes
moyil мойл moyul bird-cherry yes
niɣ (WMo) nıq, (?mıq ‘nail’) solid yes
nökör нөхөр nögör friend → best man yes
noqta noqto horse halter yes
učira- учр- учура- encounter yes
onggi уңгу ‘, stem/root (of word)’ socket for axe handle yes
ölke өлкө ‘country’ өлке ‘region’ ülke ‘country’ sunny side → area yes
saɣadaq/saɣadaɣ (WMo) саадах саадак садақ quiver yes
saqaɣu (WMo) saqoo ‘stutterer’ сақау ‘mute’ a horse disease, (deaf) yes
siläɣüsün шилүүс сүлөөсүн сілеусін lynx yes
siltaɣ(an) sıltoo motive yes
sirxa-n (WMo) sırqoo injury → illness, ailment yes
sauqa sooğa gift → candy, nice textile yes
suli (WMo) сулу сұлы feather grass → oats yes
söɣem сөөм sööm, сөөмөй ‘index finger’ span yes
soqor сохор сокур соқыр blind yes
*solaqai (WMo) soloğoy left → left-handed yes
šibaɣa(n) šıbağa lot yes
silykei/silükei (WMo) шүлхий шилекей сілекей saliva yes
šiŋqor шонхор šumqar / šuŋqar сұңқар falcon yes
takim тахим taqım knee cap yes
tanglai тагнай таңдай таңдай/таңлай soft palate yes
tasam-a (WMo) тасам тасма ‘ribbon’ strap yes
tomaɣaɣ (WMo) томого томаға hawk headgear yes
toqum тохом токум тоқым saddle cloth yes
toɣta- тогт- токто- тоқта- тукта- stop yes
tögürig (WMo) тегерек / төгөрөк circle yes
tölä- töle- төл- төлө- төле- pay prob. not from Mongol yes
oboɣa (WMo) овоо обоо оба stone heap → mound yes
olja oljo олжа loot yes
!yomaq ‘legend’ domuɣ домог жомок ‘fairy tale’ prob. not from Mongol yes