Mongolic words in Turkic languages

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The purpose of this page is to collect words in modern Turkic languages that are of Mongolic origin. Any Turkic word that appears to be cognate to a Mongolic word should only be included in this list if it does not have a phonological equivalent in pre-13th-century Turkic. Words that do not clearly meet these criteria should be gathered as Turkic-Mongolic cognates until their history can be investigated further.

When a cognate doesn't exist in a certain language, "—" is used. When a word is similar to a Mongolic origin word, but is either not from Mongolic or is morphologically divergent, it is put in italics.

Old Turkic Classical Mongolian Khalkha Modern Turkic languages gloss notes
kir kaz tat bak tur
zirɣa- жарга- жырга- жырға- ‘enjoy’
zirɣal жаргал жыргал жырғау ‘pleasure’
… bule гэр бүл үй бүлө ‘family’
ele л эле ‘just/only’
!yomaq ‘legend’ domuɣ домог жомок ‘fairy tale’ prob. not from Mongol
belterge бэлтрэг бөлтүрүк бөлтірік ‘wolf cub’
arɣ-a арга арга —? ‘way out’
tas тас тазкара ‘vulture’
timin? ‘just now’ tein/teimy тийм тим ‘such’
buɣudai буудай буудай бидай (?) ‘wheat’
unaɣ-a уна- ‘falling, driving’ унаа ‘means of transportation’
xural хурал курултай құрылтай ‘meeting’
ulus/uluš ‘settlement, residence’ ulus улс улут ұлт ‘nation’
cangɣa- цанга- (southern) чаңка- —? ‘be thirsty’
zolbin золбин жолбун —? ‘stray’
zegerde зээрд жээрде ‘chestnut horse’
tos- тос- тос- тос- ‘receive, encounter’ → ‘meet, pick up, catch’
cana цана чана шана ‘ski, sled’
buɣu buɣu буга бугу бұғы ‘deer’ should be 'buu' in Khalkha and Kyrgyz
xoruɣ-a, xorij-a(n) хороо короо қора ~‘corral, yard’
uruq(?) ‘rope’ urɣ-a(n), uɣurɣ-(a) урга, уураг, уурга укурук ‘lasso pole’
tøry- төр- төрө- ‘bear child’
(ös-) øs- өс- ‘grow (v.i., person)’ өс- ‘grow (v.i., not person)’ өс- ‘"’ ‘grow’
(qara-) qara- хар- кара- қара- ‘look at, watch’
belen бэлэн белен —? ‘ready’
kørsi(n) хөрш көрші neighbour of Turkic origin?
uruɣ ‘seed; relatives’ uruɣ ураг ‘relatives by marriage’ уруу ‘tribe’ +yes
урук ‘clan; seed; relatives’
(rasayan) (a)rasijan рашаан арашан ‘holy/mineral spring’ from Sanskrit originally
cuɣ цуг чогуу çok?? ‘together’
yalɣu ‘stupid person’ zalxaɣu залхуу жалкоо жалқау ‘lazy’ ?
ɣolumta голомт коломто қоламта - ‘hot ashes’ ‘hearth’
xaɣalɣ-a(n) хаалга каалга —? ‘yurt door’
örgün, örgin ‘throne’ ørgyge(n) өргөө өргөө ‘Khan's yurt’/‘palace’ probably of Turkic origin
bøle/byly бүл бөлө бөле ‘progeny of sisters’
byky бүх бүкүл бүкіл ‘all, whole, everything’
?čaɣïla- ‘be noisy’, ?čaqïl- ‘be cut’ cakilɣan цахилгаан ‘electricity’ чагылган ‘lightning’
mal ‘wealth’ mal мал мал мал mal ‘goods’ ‘heard animal’ "of Arabic origin"
aɣïl ayil айл айыл ауыл ‘camp, village’ of Turkic origin
alaɣ-a(n) алга алакан алақан el ‘palm’
cimki- чимхэ- чымчы- шымшы-  çimdik ‘pinch’
dalu дал далы ‘shoulder’
møndyr мөндөр мөндүр ‘hail’
coxu цох чоку шоқы ‘mountain top’ ‘forehead’
darui даруй дароо дереу ‘immediately’ cf. Tajik "даррав"
dylei дүлий дүлөй дүлей ‘deaf’
talxan талх ‘bread’ талкан ‘ground grain / meal’ ‘bread, meal’
?daqin дагы ‘more, still’ тағы ‘more, still’ тагын
тал талаа дала ‘steppe, field’
сонин ‘news, interesting’ сонун ‘awesome’
—? төл төл төл ‘baby herd animal’
бүрхэх бүркөк ‘overcast’
hoimasun (MMo) оё-/оёмол оймо ‘sewn/patterned felt’
jasa- зас- жаса- жаса- ‘construct, arrange’ → ‘make’
багш ‘teacher’ бакшы бақсы ~‘shaman’
булчин булчуң бұлшық? ‘muscle’
чухал чукул ‘urgent’ шұғыл ‘urgent ‘important’
abisun (WMo) абысын ‘sister in laws’ identified by Csáki
abura- abra- (south) ‘be many’ to save, rescue, nurse identified by Csáki
alus алс алыс алыс far identified by Csáki
alisun alısın second crop identified by Csáki
alja- aljı- ‘be wrong’ get tired, exhausted identified by Csáki
angqaɣu aŋqoo ‘simple-minded’ hard palate identified by Csáki
angɣai- aŋqıy- / aŋqay- ‘be wide open’ identified by Csáki
arča арча арша juniper identified by Csáki
arči- аарчы- аршы- wipe (clean) identified by Csáki
asara- asıra- ‘adopt a child’ protect identified by Csáki
elči (WMo) элчи елші envoy identified by Csáki, of Turkic origin?
itelgü itelgi falcon identified by Csáki
egejegei (WMo) ejigey red curds, dry cheese identified by Csáki
baɣana (WMo) бакан бағана pillar, pole identified by Csáki
baital baytal 3-yo horse identified by Csáki
baɣatur баатар баатыр батыр(?) hero, brave identified by Csáki
baja баз бажа бажа brother-in-law identified by Csáki
berkit- berket- бекит- ‘lock’ беркіт- strengthen identified by Csáki, prob. not from Mongol
bilčara- bıljıra- ‘be slippery’ soften identified by Csáki
begelei meeley mittens identified by Csáki
bulanggir(tai) (buldur?) dim identified by Csáki
büldürge (WMo) büldürgö / büldürgü loop on a whip handle identified by Csáki
boljal boljol term identified by Csáki
boro'an бороо ‘rain’ бороон ‘storm’ боран ‘storm’ snowstorm identified by Csáki
buɣurul буурал буурул бурыл grey identified by Csáki
bosaɣa босго босого босаға threshold identified by Csáki
bödene bödönö quail identified by Csáki
börte börtö dark chestnut (horse) identified by Csáki
bötege bötögö bird innards identified by Csáki
čagaɣan цагаан čağan ‘1st moth of Mongol year’ white → maple identified by Csáki
čabidur čabdar yellow horse with white mane and tail identified by Csáki
čečen цэцэн čečen ‘orator’ wise → minstrel identified by Csáki
čida- чад- чыда- ‘put up with’ шыда- ‘"’ ‘be able to’ identified by Csáki
čilbuɣur čılbır chain identified by Csáki
čiray царай чырай ‘facial features’ шырай face, appearance, expression identified by Csáki
čeber цэвэр чебер ‘prettily made’ nice, good identified by Csáki
čer чер illness identified by Csáki
*čöɣüče чөйчөк ‘bowl’ small cup (bowl) identified by Csáki
čöregei (WMo) čürök loon identified by Csáki
demči (WMo) demči ‘doctor’? business man → suitor identified by Csáki
doluɣana (WMo) dolono hawthorn identified by Csáki
dönen dönön 3-4yo stallion identified by Csáki
sar (WMo) sar, sarı hawk identified by Csáki
ilɣa- ılğa- choose, select → differentiate identified by Csáki
irjayi- ırjay- show one's bare teeth identified by Csáki
erke эрке ерке spoiled, pampered identified by Csáki
erkele- эркеле- еркеле- pamper identified by Csáki
jada- зад-? jada- / taja- be exhausted identified by Csáki
yadaɣu jadoo worn out identified by Csáki
yalga- jalğa- connect, join identified by Csáki
jasaɣul jasool ‘executive’ guard identified by Csáki
jaɣuči juuču suitor identified by Csáki
jüde- (WMo) jüdö- be tired, exhausted → be in hard times identified by Csáki
qabirqa хавирга кабырга ‘rib’ қабырға ‘wall’ rib, side, flank identified by Csáki
qaiči хайч кайчы қайшы scissors identified by Csáki
qanjuqa qanjığa saddle-thong identified by Csáki
qabturɣa qapčıq ‘bag’ wallet, pocket, leather sack identified by Csáki
qaragai (WMo) qarağay larch, spruce identified by Csáki
qaraŋgui харанхуй караңгы қараңғы dark identified by Csáki
qaraɣul qarool guard, watch identified by Csáki
qarčiqai qarčığa falcon identified by Csáki
qariɣu ?qayruu (←qɑyır-) objection identified by Csáki
kekül хөхөл көкүл ‘bangs’ kâkül horse's forlock identified by Csáki
qiramaɣ (WMo) qılamıq powdery snow identified by Csáki
kitad qıtat ‘black paint’ Chinese silk identified by Csáki
genedte kenet-kenet ‘occasionally’ suddenly identified by Csáki
kenye (WMo) кенже youngest child identified by Csáki
quda куда құда groom's relatives ↔ bride's relatives identified by Csáki
quduɣ худаг кудук құдық well identified by Csáki, of Turkic origin
ɣunajin гунж кунаажын / кунаайын 3yo female animal identified by Csáki
ɣunan гуна qunan 3yo stallion identified by Csáki
küren хүрэн күрөң күрең brown (horse) identified by Csáki
qonuq, qon- *qonolqa (WMo) конок ‘guest’; кон- ‘stay the night, perch, land’ қонақ ‘guest’ konuk shelter for the night identified by Csákiprob. not from Mongol
qongɣur коңур қоңыр dark brown identified by Csáki
kur qaraqur grouse identified by Csáki
köküz kökü(n) хөх(?) көкүрөк көкірек göğüz breast → chest identified by Csáki, prob. not from Mongol
kömegei (WMo) көмөкөй ‘uvula’ Adam's apple identified by Csáki
maɣta- магт- макта- мақта- praise identified by Csáki
malaqay малгай малакай малақай (men's) hat identified by Csáki
manglai манлай маңдай маңдай forehead identified by Csáki
mata- (WMo) mata- bend →/, disturb identified by Csáki
mergen мэргэн мерген мерген marksman identified by Csáki
mese (WMo) meskey ‘pot’; mizdüü ‘sharp’ glutton; sharp, sword identified by Csáki
moqadaq moqo- ‘make dull’; мокок ‘dull’ моқал stupid → dull identified by Csáki
möče(?) мөч? мүчө ‘body part, member’ мүше body part → body identified by Csáki
mültüre- möltürö- break loose → get engorged; shine identified by Csáki
moyil мойл moyul bird-cherry identified by Csáki
niɣ (WMo) nıq, (?mıq ‘nail’) solid identified by Csáki
nökör нөхөр nögör friend → best man identified by Csáki
noqta noqto horse halter identified by Csáki
učira- учр- учура- encounter identified by Csáki
onggi уңгу ‘, stem/root (of word)’ socket for axe handle identified by Csáki
ölke өлкө ‘country’ өлке ‘region’ ülke ‘country’ sunny side → area identified by Csáki
saɣadaq/saɣadaɣ (WMo) саадах саадак садақ quiver identified by Csáki
saqaɣu (WMo) saqoo ‘stutterer’ сақау ‘mute’ a horse disease, (deaf) identified by Csáki
siläɣüsün шилүүс сүлөөсүн сілеусін lynx identified by Csáki
siltaɣ(an) sıltoo motive identified by Csáki
sirxa-n (WMo) sırqoo injury → illness, ailment identified by Csáki
sauqa sooğa gift → candy, nice textile identified by Csáki
suli (WMo) сулу сұлы feather grass → oats identified by Csáki
söɣem сөөм sööm, сөөмөй ‘index finger’ span identified by Csáki
soqor сохор сокур соқыр blind identified by Csáki
*solaqai (WMo) soloğoy left → left-handed identified by Csáki
šibaɣa(n) šıbağa lot identified by Csáki
silykei/silükei (WMo) шүлхий шилекей сілекей saliva identified by Csáki
šiŋqor шонхор šumqar / šuŋqar сұңқар falcon identified by Csáki
takim тахим taqım knee cap identified by Csáki
tanglai тагнай таңдай таңдай/таңлай soft palate identified by Csáki
tasam-a (WMo) тасам тасма ‘ribbon’ strap identified by Csáki
tomaɣaɣ (WMo) томого томаға hawk headgear identified by Csáki
toqum тохом токум тоқым saddle cloth identified by Csáki
toɣta- тогт- токто- тоқта- тукта- stop identified by Csáki
tögürig (WMo) тегерек / төгөрөк circle identified by Csáki
tölä- töle- төл- төлө- төле- pay identified by Csáki, prob. not from Mongol
oboɣa (WMo) овоо обоо оба stone heap → mound identified by Csáki
olja oljo олжа loot identified by Csáki